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Predictive Regressions  

Jesús Gonzalo and Jean-Yves Pitarakis

Predictive regressions are a widely used econometric environment for assessing the predictability of economic and financial variables using past values of one or more predictors. The nature ... More

Preferential Trade Agreements: Recent Theoretical and Empirical Developments  

James Lake and Pravin Krishna

In recent decades, there has been a dramatic proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) between countries that, while legal, contradict the non-discrimination principle of the ... More

Price Regulation and Pay-for-Performance in Public Health Systems  

Luigi Siciliani

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Payment systems based on fixed prices have become the dominant model to finance hospitals across OECD countries. In the early 1980s, Medicare in the United States introduced the Diagnosis ... More

Price Regulation and Pharmaceuticals  

A. McGuire

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Pharmaceutical expenditure accounts for approximately 20% of healthcare expenditure across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Pharmaceutical ... More

The Protection of Intellectual Property in the Global Economy  

Kamal Saggi and Olena Ivus

Online publication date:
May 2020
Longstanding international frictions over uneven levels of protection granted to intellectual property rights (IPR) in different parts of the world culminated in 1995 in the form of the ... More

Public Finance and Soft Budgets  

Rosella Levaggi

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The concept of soft budget constraint, describes a situation where a decision-maker finds it impossible to keep an agent to a fixed budget. In healthcare it may refer to a (nonprofit) ... More

Purchasing Power Parity and Real Exchange Rates  

Menzie D. Chinn

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The idea that prices and exchange rates adjust so as to equalize the common-currency price of identical bundles of goods—purchasing power parity (PPP)—is a topic of central importance in ... More

Q-Factors and Investment CAPM  

Lu Zhang

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
The Hou–Xue–Zhang q-factor model says that the expected return of an asset in excess of the risk-free rate is described by its sensitivities to the market factor, a size factor, an ... More

Qualitative Methods in Health Economics  

Joanna Coast and Manuela De Allegri

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Qualitative methods are being used increasingly by health economists, but most health economists are not trained in these methods and may need to develop expertise in this area. This ... More

Quality in Nursing Homes  

Matteo Lippi Bruni, Irene Mammi, and Rossella Verzulli

In developed countries, the role of public authorities as financing bodies and regulators of the long-term care sector is pervasive and calls for well-planned and informed policy actions. ... More

The Rationale for Interventions to Foster Child Development  

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Socioeconomic gradients in health, cognitive, and socioemotional skills start at a very early age. Well-designed policy interventions in the early years can have a great impact in closing ... More

Returns to Health Spending in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

Ijeoma Peace Edoka

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear a disproportionately high burden of diseases in comparison to high-income countries, partly due to inequalities in the distribution of ... More

A Review of Gender Differences in Negotiation  

Iñigo Hernandez-Arenaz and Nagore Iriberri

Gender differences, both in entering negotiations and when negotiating, have been proved to exist: Men are usually more likely to enter into negotiation than women and when negotiating they ... More

Shared Prosperity: Concepts, Data, and Some Policy Examples  

Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Emanuela Galasso, and Mario Negre

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
“Shared prosperity” is a common phrase in current development policy discourse. Its most widely used operational definition—the growth rate in the average income of the poorest 40% of a ... More

Social Interactions in Health Behaviors and Conditions  

Ana Balsa and Carlos Díaz

Health behaviors are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the developed and much of the developing world. The social nature of many of these behaviors, such as eating or using ... More

Sovereign Debt: Theory  

Vivian Zhanwei Yue and Bin Wei

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
This article reviews the literature on sovereign debt, that is, debt issued by a national government. The defining characteristic of sovereign debt is the limited mechanisms for ... More

Spatial Pattern and City Size Distribution  

Tomoya Mori

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Many large cities are found at locations with certain geographic and historical advantages, or the first nature advantages. Yet those exogenous locational features may not be the most ... More

The State of DSGE Modeling  

Paul Levine

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) modeling can be structured around six key criticisms leveled at the approach. The first is fundamental and common to macroeconomics and ... More

Statistical Significance and the Replication Crisis in the Social Sciences  

Anna Dreber and Magnus Johannesson

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The recent “replication crisis” in the social sciences has led to increased attention on what statistically significant results entail. There are many reasons for why false positive results ... More

Strategies to Counteract Risk Selection in Social Health Insurance Markets  

Richard C. van Kleef, Thomas G. McGuire, Frederik T. Schut, and Wynand P. M. M. van de Ven

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Many countries rely on social health insurance supplied by competing insurers to enhance fairness and efficiency in healthcare financing. Premiums in these settings are typically community ... More

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