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Antitrust Law as a Problem in Economics  

Chris Sagers

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
“Antitrust” or “competition law,” a set of policies now existing in most market economies, largely consists of two or three specific rules applied in more or less the same way in most ... More

The Biological Foundations of Economic Preferences  

Nikolaus Robalino and Arthur Robson

Modern economic theory rests on the basic assumption that agents’ choices are guided by preferences. The question of where such preferences might have come from has traditionally been ... More

Creative Destruction, Technology Disruption, and Growth  

Thomas Clarke

The origins of modern technological change provide the context necessary to understand present-day technological transformation, to investigate the impact of the new digital technologies, ... More

Crises in the Housing Market: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Lessons  

Carlos Garriga and Aaron Hedlund

The global financial crisis of 2007–2009 helped usher in a stronger consensus about the central role that housing plays in shaping economic activity, particularly during large boom and bust ... More

Economic Development in Spain, 1815–2017  

Leandro Prados de la Escosura and Blanca Sánchez-Alonso

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
In assessments of modern-day Spain’s economic progress and living standards, inadequate natural resources, inefficient institutions, lack of education and entrepreneurship, and foreign ... More

Economic Growth in the United States, 1790 to 1860  

Thomas Weiss

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
In the early 21st century, the U.S. economy stood at or very near the top of any ranking of the world’s economies, more obviously so in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), but also when ... More

Economic History of Ming-Qing and Modern China  

Kent Deng

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
The Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) marked in the long history of China a period of cultural, political, demographic, and economic renaissance, after less than a century (1271–1368) of rule by the ... More

Economic Life in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain, 1085–1815  

Hilario Casado Alonso and Teofilo F. Ruiz

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The period between 1085 to 1815 witnessed important transformations in Spain’s economic history. The transition from a frontier society to one of the largest empires in the world was soon ... More

The Growth of Health Spending in the United States From 1776 to 2026  

Thomas E. Getzen

During the 18th and 19th centuries, medical spending in the United States rose slowly, on average about .25% faster than gross domestic product (GDP), and varied widely between rural and ... More

International Trade Since 1914  

James Foreman-Peck

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Long-distance international trade for hundreds of years stemmed primarily from differences in climate. Generally free-trade policy and reduced transport cost superimposed another pattern by ... More

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