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Corruption and Development: A Reappraisal  

Alina Mungiu-Pippidi and Till Hartmann

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Corruption and development are two mutually related concepts equally shifting in meaning across time. The predominant 21st-century view of government that regards corruption as inacceptable ... More

Creative Destruction, Technology Disruption, and Growth  

Thomas Clarke

The origins of modern technological change provide the context necessary to understand present-day technological transformation, to investigate the impact of the new digital technologies, ... More

Economic Development in Spain, 1815–2017  

Leandro Prados de la Escosura and Blanca Sánchez-Alonso

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
In assessments of modern-day Spain’s economic progress and living standards, inadequate natural resources, inefficient institutions, lack of education and entrepreneurship, and foreign ... More

Economic Growth in the United States, 1790 to 1860  

Thomas Weiss

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
In the early 21st century, the U.S. economy stood at or very near the top of any ranking of the world’s economies, more obviously so in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), but also when ... More

Exchange Rate Policies and Economic Development  

Eduardo Levy Yeyati

Online publication date:
May 2019
While traditional economic literature often sees nominal variables as irrelevant for the real economy, there is a vast body of analytical and empirical economic work that recognizes that, ... More

The Growth of Health Spending in the United States From 1776 to 2026  

Thomas E. Getzen

During the 18th and 19th centuries, medical spending in the United States rose slowly, on average about .25% faster than gross domestic product (GDP), and varied widely between rural and ... More

Institutions and Development: An Overview of Case Studies in China and India  

Pranab Bardhan

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
In contrast with the existing cross-country literature on institutions and development the overview in this article focuses instead on case studies of institutions at the disaggregated ... More

International Reserves, Exchange Rates, and Monetary Policy: From the Trilemma to the Quadrilemma  

Joshua Aizenman

The links of international reserves, exchange rates, and monetary policy can be understood through the lens of a modern incarnation of the “impossible trinity” (aka the “trilemma”), based ... More

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference  

Noémi Kreif and Karla DiazOrdaz

While machine learning (ML) methods have received a lot of attention in recent years, these methods are primarily for prediction. Empirical researchers conducting policy evaluations are, on ... More

Political Economy of Reform  

Stuti Khemani

“Reform” in the economics literature refers to changes in government policies or institutional rules because status-quo policies and institutions are not working well to achieve the goals ... More

The Economics of Early Interventions Aimed at Child Development  

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
A set of policies is at the center of the agenda on early childhood development: parenting programs, childcare regulation and subsidies, cash and in-kind transfers, and parental leave ... More

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