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date: 27 January 2023

School Climatelocked

School Climatelocked

  • Ruth Berkowitz, Ruth BerkowitzUniversity of Haifa
  • Aidyn Iachini, Aidyn IachiniUniversity of South Carolina
  • Hadass Moore, Hadass MooreUniversity of Southern California
  • Gordon Capp, Gordon CappUniversity of Southern California
  • Ron Avi Astor, Ron Avi AstorUniversity of Southern California
  • Ronald PitnerRonald PitnerUniversity of South Carolina
  •  and Rami BenbenishtyRami BenbenishtyBar Ilan University, Israel


Educational practitioners and researchers have increasingly recognized the importance of the context in which learning occurs, particularly the influence of school climate on students’ academic, social, and emotional outcomes. School climate is based on the subjective experiences of school life for students, staff members, school leaders, parents, and the entire school community. A school’s climate reflects its norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. A large body of evidence connects a positive school climate to improvements in children’s learning and healthy development in school. A positive school climate is also an essential component within comprehensive school improvement processes. Nonetheless, the divergence and disagreement in defining and measuring school climate in the literature are evident. There is a major interest in school climate improvement and school climate policy. However, the policy context that supports school climate varies considerably across the United States and internationally. Clarification regarding the dimensions of school climate and continued research on how a positive school climate contributes to both school and student outcomes remain important.


  • Education, Change, and Development
  • Education and Society

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