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The World Bank and Educational Assistance  

D. Brent Edwards Jr. and Inga Storen

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Globalization, Economics, and Education
Since the 1950s, the World Bank’s involvement and influence in educational assistance has increased greatly. The World Bank has not only been a key player, but, at times, has been the ... More

Tradition and Change in the Curriculum of a Liberal or General Education  

D. G. Mulcahy

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article. The idea ... More

Traditions, Research, and Practice Supporting Academically Productive Classroom Discourse  

Jie Park, Sarah Michaels, Renee Affolter, and Catherine O'Connor

This article focuses on both research and practice relating to academically productive classroom discourse. We seek to “expand the conversation” to include newcomers to the field of ... More

Transformational Leadership and Change in Education  

David Litz and Rida Blaik-Hourani

Transformational leadership is one of the most widely discussed and utilized notions that has risen to the forefront of educational administration. Transformational leadership was initially ... More

Transformation in Higher Education in South Africa Toward the Decolonization of South African Universities  

Ruksana Osman and Felix Maringe

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Education and Society
Higher education in South Africa, as elsewhere in the world, is under pressure to reinvent and transform itself. Traditionally it has enjoyed the financial support of the government and has ... More

Transformative Leadership  

Carolyn M. Shields

Transformative leadership theory (TLT) is distinct from other leadership theories because of its inherently normative and critical approach grounded in the values of equity, inclusion, ... More

Transforming Special Education With an Inclusive, Rights-Based Approach  

JoDell Heroux and Susan Peters

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Can inclusion and special education achieve education for all? The answer: It depends. What has been called “special education” began its rounds in schools as early as the late 19th ... More

Transforming Teacher Education in South Africa  

Crain Soudien and Yusuf Sayed

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Professional Learning and Development
After 1994, the South African government put in place an ambitious policy framework to transform the system of teacher education to promote equitable quality education for all. This ... More

Forgotten but Crucial Aspects of Transition Planning for Inclusion  

Iva Strnadová

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Curriculum and Pedagogy, Education and Society
Transition planning can increase positive post-school outcomes and inclusion for students with intellectual disabilities. Kohler’s Taxonomy for Transition Programming 2.0 is a useful tool ... More

Transitions, Justice, and Equity in Education in Finland  

Kristiina Brunila, Elina Ikävalko, Tuuli Kurki, Ameera Masoud, Katariina Mertanen, Anna Mikkola, and Kalle Mäkelä

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The ethos of vulnerability plays a central role in shaping cross-sectoral youth transition policies and their implementations. Despite good intentions, the ethos of vulnerability emphasizes ... More

Translanguaging  

Sara Vogel and Ofelia García

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Languages and Literacies
Translanguaging is a theoretical lens that offers a different view of bilingualism and multilingualism. The theory posits that rather than possessing two or more autonomous language ... More

Translanguaging in Educating Teachers of Language-Minoritized Students  

Carla España, Luz Yadira Herrera, and Ofelia García

Teacher education programs to prepare those who teach language-minoritized students many times continue to uphold modernist conceptions of language and bilingualism. Translanguaging ... More

Translating National Policies into Schoolwide Practices  

Watinee Amornpaisarnloet

One of the ultimate goals in improving students’ quality of life is to provide them with quality learning experiences in schools. This goal has led many developed and developing countries ... More

Transnational Curriculum Formation and Change  

Noel Gough

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article. Although ... More

Transnationalism and Education  

G. Sue Kasun and Patricia Sánchez

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Trauma-Informed Practice for Pre-service Teachers  

Carmel Hobbs, Dane Paulsen, and Jeff Thomas

Complex trauma experienced in childhood has detrimental impacts on the brain, learning and socio-moral development, the effects of which can last long into adulthood. A growing body of ... More

Trends and Developments in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region  

John N. Hawkins

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Trust in Education  

Megan Tschannen-Moran

There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that trust plays in every aspect of a school’s functioning and especially to student outcomes. To trust another person or group is to be at ... More

Trust in Principals  

Merve Zayim-Kurtay

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Educational Administration and Leadership
Trust is generally considered as the basis of relationships between major school stakeholders and contributes not only to productive attitudes and behaviors but also to the accomplishment ... More

Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and School Leadership in Action  

Tomoko Takahashi

Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871–1944) was a geographer, elementary school teacher and principal, and educational reformer, who was active in the early-to-mid 1900s in Japan. As a school leader ... More

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