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Critical Realism for Ethnography  

Grant Banfield

While specific applications of critical realism to ethnography are few, theoretical developments are promising and await more widespread development. This is especially the case for ... More

Critical Social Studies in the United States  

Tommy Ender

Online publication date:
May 2019
Social studies, theoretically, examines the social dynamics of different groups of people within a particular society. The subject, as defined in the US education system, incorporates ... More

Critical Vocational-Technical Education and Training: Learning for Economy, Equity, and Environment  

James Gregson

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article. In The ... More

Critical Whiteness Studies  

Barbara Applebaum

In 1903, standing at the dawn of the 20th century, W. E. B. Du Bois wrote that the color line is the defining characteristic of American society. Well into the 21st century, Du Bois’s ... More

Cross-Cultural Exploration of School Leadership  

Roxanne M. Mitchell

Scholars have suggested that the study of school leadership has been dominated by Anglo-American and Western views. This has provoked a call for conceptual and empirical research on school ... More

Culturally Proficient Leadership  

Randall B. Lindsey, Delores B. Lindsey, and Raymond D. Terrell

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Culturally proficient leadership is an inside-out process of personal and organizational change. Cultural proficiency reflects educational leaders’ values through their actions in service ... More

Culturally Responsive Classroom Management  

H. Richard Milner IV

Online publication date:
May 2019
Classroom management remains a serious concern for educators in both pre-service and in-service realms. A mostly white teaching force may struggle to teach students who are very different ... More

Culturally Responsive Evaluation as a Form of Critical Qualitative Inquiry  

Michelle Bryan and Ashlee Lewis

As a form of applied research, program evaluation is concerned with determining the worth, merit, or value of a program or project using various research methods. Over the past 20 years, ... More

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Teacher Education  

Conra Gist, Iesha Jackson, Bianca Nightengale-Lee, and Keisha Allen

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
To effectively teach an increasingly diverse student population throughout the United States, scholars and teacher educators have become proponents of using culturally responsive pedagogy. ... More

Current School Reforms in Transnational Policy Landscapes  

Ninni Wahlstrom

The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and its Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) play an important role in forming transnational education ... More

Curriculum and Place  

William M. Reynolds

Place matters. The conceptualizations and analyses of place defined in geographical and metaphorical terms play a significant role in understanding curriculum and are an exciting, important ... More

Data-Based Decision-Making  

Mark Carter, Jennifer Stephenson, and Sarah Carlon

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The term data-based decision-making can refer to a wide range of practices from formative classroom use of monitoring in order to improve instruction to system-wide use of “big” data to ... More

Data Use in Recent School Reforms  

Sølvi Mausethagen, Tine Prøitz, and Guri Skedsmo

Typically involving the use of test scores, grades, and other forms of assessment in various educational contexts, the concept of data use has developed in parallel with the introduction of ... More

Decolonial Philosophy and Education  

Nassim Noroozi

“Decolonial philosophy of education” is an almost nonexistent term. Consequently, rigorous intellectual and scholarly conversations on education tend to be centered around a specific set of ... More

Decolonization of Environmental Education from the Perspective of Southern Environmental Thinking  

Ana Patricia Noguera de Echeverri, Diana Alexandra Bernal Arias, and Sergio Manuel Echeverri Noguera

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
A bet, a clamor, an algid need, to “thinking us” (as a collaborative, and reflexive thinking in a prospective way) about environmental education, or better, the environmentalization of ... More

Defense Mechanisms  

Phebe Cramer

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Defense mechanisms are mental operations that function outside of awareness. In this sense, they operate in the unconscious mind. Such mechanisms were first identified by Sigmund Freud in ... More

Deleuze and Guattari and Teacher Education  

Diana Masny

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
This essay explores the contributions of Deleuze and Guattari with a focus on teacher education. Like Deleuze and Guattari, who write about messiness and unpredictability, this essay takes ... More

Deleuze Studies in Education  

David R. Cole

Gilles Deleuze (1925–1995) was a French philosopher, who wrote about literature, art, cinema, other philosophers, capitalism, and schizophrenia. His wide-ranging oeuvre has begun to be ... More

Democracy and Education in Libya  

Abdelbasit Gadour

Looking back at the so-called Arab Spring, one sees people across these countries where the uprisings took place (e.g., Libya) still enduring political repression and change, a growth in ... More

Democracy and Education in the United States  

Kathy Hytten

There is an integral and reciprocal relationship between democracy and education. Democracy is more than a political system or process, it is also a way of life that requires certain habits ... More

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