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Pedagogy for Inclusive Education  

Tim Loreman

A number of different pedagogical approaches have been presented as being helpful for teachers working with students in inclusive learning environments. These approaches were developed in the late 20th century and were largely derived from models of special education. Many of them are still evident in classrooms around the world today. Based on approaches that appear to have been effective, a set of principles for the development and implementation of inclusive education pedagogy, as identified in the academic literature, can be discerned. These principles, however, are best viewed through a critical lens that highlights cautions for teachers engaged in inclusive teaching. Examples of inclusive approaches that align with some basic principles of inclusive pedagogy include but are not limited to Differentiated Instruction, Universal Design for Learning, and Florian and Spratt’s (2013) Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in Action framework.

Article

Leadership and Supervision  

Sally J. Zepeda, Ahmed M. Alkaabi, and Mark D. Tavernier

Supervisory leadership must be enacted as a daily and persistent practice to support teachers’ efforts to educate children, despite the constant influx of accountability demands and requirements from internal and external forces that often distract from the core function of teaching and learning. As a field, supervision has progressed from autocratic practices used to inspect and control teachers to more developmental and differentiated forms to support teachers’ own wish to evaluate, understand, and improve their practices. The tensions between supervision as a support and the summative aspects of evaluation continue to polarize the teacher–supervisor relationship. Supervisory leadership is a collaborative process that builds cultures of trust and risk-taking. Supervisory leadership connects supervision, teacher evaluation, and professional development to support teacher growth and development. Embedded in these processes are the principles of adult learning and career-stage theory to accommodate various needs to foster cognitive development and enhance instructional practices.

Article

Differentiated Instruction and Inclusive Schooling  

Diana Lawrence-Brown

Differentiated instruction encompasses a wide range of responsive pedagogies, including individualized types and levels of curricula, teaching methods, materials, and assessment strategies. It has at its roots the impetus for effective inclusive schooling, providing supports directly within general education classrooms for students with the full range of exceptionalities (both significant disabilities and giftedness) and other diverse educational characteristics such as cultural and linguistic background and socioeconomic status. To effectively include students with higher levels of need, comparable levels of supports follow the student from the special education setting to the general education classroom. This enriched level of support in the general education classroom benefits not only students with disabilities, but the class as a whole. The legal and ethical bases for inclusive schooling are connected with various civil rights movements (including race, disability, culture and language, gender); it can be viewed as a response to segregated schooling (and denial of schooling altogether). Schools frequently remove students when traditional educational programs fail, adding on separate programs rather than rectifying the existing system. Such special programs have been routinely promulgated without substantial evidence of their effectiveness over supportive general education classrooms (either for segregated students or for their unlabeled general education peers). Important aspects of differentiated instruction and inclusive schooling include multilevel instruction; authentic and culturally responsive curricula, methods, and assessment; universal design for learning; assistive and instructional technologies; positive behavioral supports; and a collaborative team approach to instructional decision-making and delivery. Differentiated instruction and effective inclusive schooling are vital for equitable access to educational opportunities, bringing more responsive curricula, methods, and perspectives to increasingly diverse classrooms and schools.