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date: 02 December 2021

Inclusive and Special Education in Canada and the United Stateslocked

Inclusive and Special Education in Canada and the United Stateslocked

  • Laura SokalLaura SokalUniversity of Winnipeg
  •  and Jennifer KatzJennifer KatzUniversity of British Columbia


The development of inclusive educational practices and their current practices differ significantly between the North American nations of Canada and the United States. Although these countries do share similarities in both theoretical underpinnings and educational programming, the current differences in policy oversight nationally and at the provincial and state levels promote a wider range of policy and programmatic differences across Canada than in the United States. Governance structures, the resulting policies, and their similarities and differences between and within these countries serve as foundations that underpin innovative inclusive educational programming in each country. The interplay between legislation and activism has both reflected and provoked the movement away from special education and toward inclusive education to varying degrees in both Canada and the United States.


  • Educational Politics and Policy
  • Education and Society

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