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Letter from the editor

Environmental Degradation: Estimating the Health Effects of Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution in Developing Countries

"Air pollution of fine particulates (PM2.5) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is estimated that ambient PM2.5 air pollution results in between 4.1 million and 8.9 million premature deaths annually. According to the World Bank, the health effects of ambient PM2.5 air pollution had a cost of $6.4 trillion in purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted dollars in 2019, equivalent to 4.8% of global gross domestic product (PPP adjusted) that year. ..." – By Ernesto Sánchez-Triana, Bjorn Larsen, Santiago Enriquez and Andreia Costa Santos

Carbon Taxes

"The principle of anthropogenic climate change is well established, but how does economics conceptualize the problem of climate change and its potential solutions? Economists describe climate change as a negative externality; in fact, the biggest negative externality humanity has experienced, or more broadly, as a failure of the free market to maximize social welfare. ..." – By Jorge H. García and Thomas Sterner

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In December 2021, 95 new full articles, 26 revised articles, and 1 new summary article across 18 disciplines have been published on the Oxford Research Encyclopedias platform. Explore the recently published articles now.

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