Summary and Keywords
Beyond damage to rainfed agricultural and forestry ecosystems, soil erosion due to water affects surrounding environments. Large amounts of eroded soil are deposited in streams, lakes, and other ecosystems. The most costly off-site damages occur when eroded particles, transported along the hillslopes of a basin, arrive at the river network or are deposited in lakes. The negative effects of soil erosion include water pollution and siltation, organic matter loss, nutrient loss, and reduction in water storage capacity. Sediment deposition raises the bottom of waterways, making them more prone to overflowing and flooding. Sediments contaminate water ecosystems with soil particles and the fertilizer and pesticide chemicals they contain. Siltation of reservoirs and dams reduces water storage, increases the maintenance cost of dams, and shortens the lifetime of reservoirs. Sediment yield is the quantity of transported sediments, in a given time interval, from eroding sources through the hillslopes and river network to a basin outlet. Chemicals can also be transported together with the eroded sediments. Sediment deposition inside a reservoir reduces the water storage of a dam.
The prediction of sediment yield can be carried out by coupling an erosion model with a mathematical operator which expresses the sediment transport efficiency of the hillslopes and the channel network. The sediment lag between sediment yield and erosion can be simply represented by the sediment delivery ratio, which can be calculated at the outlet of the considered basin, or by using a distributed approach. The former procedure couples the evaluation of basin soil loss with an estimate of the sediment delivery ratio SDRW for the whole watershed. The latter procedure requires that the watershed be discretized into morphological units, areas having a constant steepness and a clearly defined length, for which the corresponding sediment delivery ratio is calculated. When rainfall reaches the surface horizon of the soil, some pollutants are desorbed and go into solution while others remain adsorbed and move with soil particles. The spatial distribution of the loading of nitrogen, phosphorous, and total organic carbon can be deduced using the spatial distribution of sediment yield and the pollutant content measured on soil samples. The enrichment concept is applied to clay, organic matter, and all pollutants adsorbed by soil particles, such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Knowledge of both the rate and pattern of sediment deposition in a reservoir is required to establish the remedial strategies which may be practicable. Repeated reservoir capacity surveys are used to determine the total volume occupied by sediment, the sedimentation pattern, and the shift in the stage-area and stage-storage curves. By converting the sedimentation volume to sediment mass, on the basis of estimated or measured bulk density, and correcting for trap efficiency, the sediment yield from the basin can be computed.
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