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Atmospheric Brown Clouds  

Sumit Sharma, Liliana Nunez, and Veerabhadran Ramanathan

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) are widespread pollution clouds that can at times span an entire continent or an ocean basin. ABCs extend vertically from the ground upward to as high as 3 ... More

Barley in Archaeology and Early History  

Simone Riehl

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In 2018 barley accounts for only 5% of the cereal production worldwide, and regionally for up to 40% of cereal production. The cereal represents the oldest crop species and is one of the ... More

Benefit Transfer for Ecosystem Services  

Kevin J. Boyle and Christopher F. Parmeter

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Benefit transfer is the projection of benefits from one place and time to another time at the same place or to a new place. Thus, benefit transfer includes the adaptation of an original ... More

Big Data in Environment and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Niccolò Tempini, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Gordon L. Nichols, Christophe Sarran, Paolo Vineis, Giovanni Leonardi, Brian Golding, Andy Haines, Anthony Kessel, Virginia Murray, Michael Depledge, and Sabina Leonelli

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Big data refers to large, complex, potentially linkable data from diverse sources, ranging from the genome and social media, to individual health information and the ... More

Biodiversity Generation and Loss  

T.H. Oliver

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Human activities in the Anthropocene are influencing the twin processes of biodiversity generation and loss in complex ways that threaten the maintenance of biodiversity levels that ... More

Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities  

Peter Kareiva and Isaac Kareiva

The concept of biodiversity hotspots arose as a science-based framework with which to identify high-priority areas for habitat protection and conservation—often in the form of nature ... More

Biodiversity in Heterogeneous and Dynamic Landscapes  

Clélia Sirami

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Although the concept of biodiversity emerged 30 years ago, patterns and processes influencing ecological diversity have been studied for more than a century. Historically, ecological ... More

CAFOs: Farm Animals and Industrialized Livestock Production  

James M. MacDonald

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Industrialized livestock production can be characterized by five key attributes: confinement feeding of animals, separation of feed and livestock production, specialization, large size, ... More

Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization  

Elisabeth N. Bui

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of ... More

Challenges to Environmental Valuation of Water in Light of Global Change  

Vic Adamowicz and Diane Dupont

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
A number of challenges are faced by practitioners seeking to elicit values associated with water in a world of global change. These values are needed to assist in decision-making around ... More

Cities, Green Space, and Mental Well-Being  

Jenny Roe

Mental and behavioral disorders account for approximately 7.4% of the global burden of disease, with depression now the world’s leading cause of disability. One in four people in the ... More

Citrus History, Taxonomy, Breeding, and Fruit Quality  

Paolo Inglese and Giuseppe Sortino

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In May, every year since 1857, in the great park of Sans-Souci in Potsdam just outside Berlin—a park begun in 1745 by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenzollern and expanded a century later by ... More

Classification and Mitigation of Soil Salinization  

Tibor Tóth

Soil salinity has been causing problems for agriculturists for millennia, primarily in irrigated lands. The importance of salinity issues is increasing, since large areas are affected by ... More

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa  

Laura Pereira

Confidence in the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In ... More

Conservation in the Amazon: Evolution and Situation  

Marc Dourojeanni

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
In 1945 the Amazon biome was almost intact. Marks of ancient cultural developments in Andean and lowland Amazon had cicatrized and the impacts of rubber and more recent resources ... More

Crop Production Resilience through Biodiversity for Adaptation to Climate Change  

Charles A. Francis

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Adaptation of cropping systems to weather uncertainty and climate change is essential for resilient food production and long-term food security. Changes in climate result in substantial ... More

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits  

Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, and Faisal Nadeem

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Planned crop rotation offers a pragmatic option to improve soil fertility, manage insect pests and diseases, and offset the emission of greenhouse gases. The inclusion of legume crops in ... More

Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Corn  

Emerson Nafziger

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Corn ranks first among crops in quantity produced globally, owing to its high yield and to its value as a food for humans and domestic animals. While its water-use efficiency is high ... More

The Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Mushrooms  

Shu Ting Chang and Solomon P. Wasser

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The word mushroom may mean different things to different people in different countries. Specialist studies on the value of mushrooms and their products should have a clear definition of ... More

Environmental Footprints of Modernization Trends in Rice Production Systems of Southeast Asia  

Reiner Wassmann

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Assessing the environmental footprints of modern agriculture requires a balanced approach that sets the obviously negative effects (e.g., incidents with excessive use of inputs) against ... More

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