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Effective Practices in Mitigating Soil Erosion from Fields  

Vincenzo Bagarello

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Soil erosion by water is a natural process that cannot be avoided. Soil erosion depends on many factors, and a distinction should be made between humanly unchangeable (e.g., rainfall) and ... More

The Emergence of Environment as a Security Imperative  

Felix Dodds

The emergence of environment as a security imperative is something that could have been avoided. Early indications showed that if governments did not pay attention to critical ... More

Environmental Accounting  

Jean Louis Weber

Environmental accounting is an attempt to broaden the scope of the accounting frameworks used to assess economic performance, to take stock of elements that are not recorded in public or ... More

Environmental Benefits and Concerns of Center-Pivot Irrigation  

Leonor Rodriguez Sinobas

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Center-pivot irrigation systems started in the United States in the mid-20th century as an irrigation method which surpassed the traditional surface irrigation methods. At that time, they ... More

Environmental Change, Migration, and Population Health  

Celia McMichael

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Global environmental change amplifies and creates pressures that shape human migration. In the 21st century, there has been increasing focus on the complexities of migration and ... More

Environmental Economic Instruments in Mexico  

Marisol Rivera-Planter, Carlos Muñoz-Piña, and Mariza Montes de Oca

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Environmental Economics and the Anthropocene  

V. Kerry Smith

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Geologists’ reframing of the global changes arising from human impacts can be used to consider how the insights from environmental economics inform policy under this new perspective. They ... More

Environmental Geology and Sustainability of Deltas  

Enuvie G. Akpokodje

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Deltas have played a significant role in the growth of human civilization because of their unique economic and ecological importance. However, deltas are becoming increasingly vulnerable ... More

Environmental Health Impacts of Natural and Man-Made Chemicals  

Michael N. Moore

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Humans have been exposed to naturally occurring toxic chemicals and materials over the course of their existence as a species. These materials include various metals, the metalloid ... More

The Environmental History of Russia  

Stephen Brain

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Russian environmental history is a new field of inquiry, with the first archivally based monographs appearing only in the last years of the 20th century. Despite the field’s youth, ... More

Environmental History of the Mississippi River and Delta  

Christopher Morris

The Mississippi River, the longest in North America, is really two rivers geophysically. The volume is less, the slope steeper, the velocity greater, and the channel straighter in its ... More

Environmental Impacts and Benefits of Agroforestry  

Shibu Jose

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Agroforestry systems, the planting of perennial trees and/or shrubs with annual agronomic crops or pasture, have been proposed as more environmentally benign, alternative systems for ... More

Environmental Impacts of Tropical Soybean and Palm Oil Crops  

Kimberly M. Carlson and Rachael D. Garrett

Oil crops play a critical role in global food and energy systems. Since these crops have high oil content, they provide cooking oils for human consumption, biofuels for energy, feed for ... More

The Environmental Kuznets Curve  

David I. Stern

Online publication date:
May 2017
The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is a hypothesized relationship between environmental degradation and GDP per capita. In the early stages of economic growth, pollution emissions and ... More

Environmental Regulations in China  

Haitao Yin, Xuemei Zhang, and Feng Wang

Online publication date:
May 2019
China’s environmental challenges are unprecedented in terms of their size and severity. The country’s constantly evolving regulatory systems are a blend of lessons learned from Western ... More

Environmental Regulations in Mexico  

María E. Ibarrarán and Jerónimo Chavarría

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In Mexico, the laws and norms that regulate the environment emerged at the end of the 19th century to standardize infrastructure construction and preserve nature. However, it was not until ... More

The Environment in Health and Well-Being  

George Morris and Patrick Saunders

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Most people today readily accept that their health and disease are products of personal characteristics such as their age, gender, and genetic inheritance; the choices they make; and, of ... More

Epigenetics and the Exposome: Environmental Exposure in Disease Etiology  

Paolo Vineis and Federica Russo

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
While genomics has been founded on accurate tools that lead to a limited amount of classification error, exposure assessment in epidemiology is often affected by large error. The ... More

Ethics of the Zoo  

Jozef Keulartz

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The animal world is under increasing pressure, given the magnitude of anthropogenic environmental stress, especially from human-caused rapid climate change together with habitat ... More

Evolutionary Impacts of Climate Change  

Juha Merilä and Ary A. Hoffmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Changing climatic conditions have both direct and indirect influences on abiotic and biotic processes and represent a potent source of novel selection pressures for adaptive evolution. In ... More

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