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Household Air Pollution in Low and Middle Income Countries  

Caroline A. Ochieng, Cathryn Tonne, Sotiris Vardoulakis, and Jan Semenza

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Household air pollution from use of solid fuels (biomass fuels and coal) is a major problem in low and middle income countries, where 90% of the population relies on these fuels as the ... More

How Environmental Degradation Impoverishes the Poor  

Edward B. Barbier

Globally, around 1.5 billion people in developing countries, or approximately 35% of the rural population, can be found on less-favored agricultural land (LFAL), which is susceptible to ... More

How to Make Individual Transferable Quotas Work Economically, Socially, and Environmentally  

Rashid Sumaila

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The economic tool of individual transferable quotas (ITQs) gives their owners exclusive and transferable rights to catch a given portion of the total allowable catch (TAC) of a given fish ... More

Human Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan  

Simon Holdaway and Rebecca Phillipps

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Northeast Africa forms an interesting case study for investigating the relationship between changes in environment and agriculture. Major climatic changes in the early Holocene led to ... More

Hunter-Gatherer Economies in the Old World and New World  

Christopher Morgan, Shannon Tushingham, Raven Garvey, Loukas Barton, and Robert Bettinger

At the global scale, conceptions of hunter-gatherer economies have changed considerably over time and these changes were strongly affected by larger trends in Western history, philosophy, ... More

The Impacts of Environmental Regulation on the U.S. Economy  

Ann E. Ferris, Richard Garbaccio, Alex Marten, and Ann Wolverton

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Concern regarding the economic impacts of environmental regulations has been part of the public dialogue since the beginning of the U.S. EPA. Even as large improvements in environmental ... More

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems  

Maria C. Bruno

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
World food systems in the 21st century comprise domesticated plant and animal species that originated from nearly every continent on the globe, spread through exchange and trade, and have ... More

Indigenous Polynesian Agriculture in Hawaiʻi  

Noa Kekuewa Lincoln and Peter Vitousek

Agriculture in Hawaiʻi was developed in response to the high spatial heterogeneity of climate and landscape of the archipelago, resulting in a broad range of agricultural strategies. Over ... More

Indoor Air Pollution in Developed Countries  

Richard Sharpe, Nicholas Osborne, Sotiris Vardoulakis, and Sani Dimitroulopoulou

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Industrial Fertilizers in Agriculture  

Gregory L. Willoughby

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Agriculture has been said to be the key to civilization development. The longevity of the production of the soils which sustained the population development influenced, in fact caused, the ... More

The Industrialization of Commercial Fishing, 1930–2016  

Carmel Finley

Nations rapidly industrialized after World War II, sharply increasing the extraction of resources from the natural world. Colonial empires broke up on land after the war, but they were ... More

Input-Output Models Applied to Environmental Analysis  

Joaquim Guilhoto

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Interface Urban Forest Management in an Urbanizing Landscape  

Maria A. Cunha-e-Sá and Sofia F. Franco

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

International Environmental Conventions on Biodiversity  

Matti Nummelin and Niko Urho

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity have been in the center of policy creation for half a century. The main international biodiversity conventions and processes include the ... More

The Life Satisfaction Approach to Environmental Valuation  

Christopher Fleming and Christopher Ambrey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The method and practice of placing monetary values on environmental goods and services for which a conventional market price is otherwise unobservable is one of the most fertile areas of ... More

Market Failures, the Environment, and Human Health  

Karyn Morrissey

Online publication date:
May 2018
Knowledge of the important role that the environment plays in determining human health predates the modern public health era. However, the tendency to see health, disease, and their ... More

Material and Energy Flow Analysis  

Vincent Moreau and Guillaume Massard

The concept of metabolism takes root in biology and ecology as a systematic way to account for material flows in organisms and ecosystems. Early applications of the concept attempted to ... More

Measuring Soil Loss and Subsequent Nutrient and Organic Matter Loss on Farmland  

Vito Ferro and Vincenzo Bagarello

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Field plots are often used to obtain experimental data (soil loss values corresponding to different climate, soil, topographic, crop, and management conditions) for predicting and ... More

Mineral Dust Cycle  

Irina Sokolik

Online publication date:
May 2016
There is scientific consensus that human activities have been altering the atmospheric composition and are a key driver of global climate and environmental changes since pre-industrial ... More

Mining, Ecological Engineering, and Metals Extraction for the 21st Century  

Margarete Kalin, William N. Wheeler, Michael P. Sudbury, and Bryn Harris

The first treatise on mining and extractive metallurgy, published by Georgius Agricola in 1556, was also the first to highlight the destructive environmental side effects of mining and ... More

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