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Surface Irrigation  

Luis S. Pereira and José M. Gonçalves

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Surface irrigation is the oldest and most widely used irrigation method, more than 83% of the world’s irrigated area. It comprises traditional systems, developed over millennia, and modern ... More

Sustainable Coffee Production  

Sarada Krishnan

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Coffee is an extremely important agricultural commodity, produced in about 80 tropical countries, with an estimated 125 million people depending on it for their livelihoods in Latin ... More

Temperate Forest Economics  

Roger Sedjo

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The world’s forest cover is approximately 4 billion hectares (10 billion acres). Of this total, approximately one-half is temperate forests. These range from the subtropics to roughly 65 ... More

Terracing: From Agriculture to Multiple Ecosystem Services  

Paolo Socci, Alessandro Errico, Giulio Castelli, Daniele Penna, and Federico Preti

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Agricultural terraces are widely spread all over the world and are among the most evident landscape signatures of the human fingerprint, in many cases dating back to several centuries. ... More

The Economics of Marine Reserves  

Venetia Alexa Hargreaves-Allen

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Marine protected areas (MPAs) remain one of the principal strategies for marine conservation globally. MPAs are highly heterogeneous in terms of physical features such as size and shape, ... More

The Mirage of Supply-side Development: The Hydraulic Mission and the Politics of Agriculture and Water in the Nile Basin  

Harry Verhoueven

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
In an era of calamitous climate change, entrenched malnutrition, and the chronic exclusion of hundreds of millions of people from access to affordable energy, food, and water, evaluating ... More

The Qanat System of Iran and the Maghreb  

Ahmad Abbasnejad and Behnam Abbasnejad

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
A qanat is a kind of subterranean horizontal tunnel and usually excavated in soft sediments. It conducts groundwater to the surface at its emerging point. In addition to the tunnel, each ... More

Tomatoes: A Model Crop of Solanaceous Plants  

Raheel Anwar, Tahira Fatima, and Autar Mattoo

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
The modern-day cultivated and highly consumed tomato has come a long way from its ancestor(s), which were in the wild and not palatable. Breeding strategies made the difference in making ... More

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture, Pastoralism, and Agricultural Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Andrew B. Smith

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
African domesticated animals, with the exception of the donkey, all came from the Near East. Some 8,000 years ago cattle, sheep, and goats came south to the Sahara which was much wetter ... More

Urban Landscapes and Green Infrastructure  

Stephan Pauleit, Rieke Hansen, Emily Lorance Rall, Teresa Zölch, Erik Andersson, Ana Catarina Luz, Luca Szaraz, Ivan Tosics, and Kati Vierikko

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Urban green infrastructure (GI) has been promoted as an approach to respond to major urban environmental and social challenges such as reducing the ecological footprint, improving human ... More

Use of Property Values and Location Decisions for Environmental Valuation  

Lala Ma

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The economics literature has developed various methods to recover the values for environmental commodities. Two such methods related to revealed preference are property value hedonic ... More

Valuation of Mangrove Restoration  

Edward B. Barbier

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there has been strong interest globally in restoring mangrove ecosystems and their potential benefits from protecting coastlines and people from ... More

Valuation of Beach Quality  

Ashley Barfield and Craig E. Landry

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The result of interactive dynamics of the ocean, landforms, and weather patterns, sandy beaches and dunes are a natural feature along many coastlines around the world. Their contributions ... More

Valuation of Biodiversity  

Bartosz Bartkowski

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Massive population declines and species extinction have characterized the 20th and early 21st centuries. These local and global phenomena do not only involve the loss of particular ... More

Valuation of Marine Ecosystems  

Achilleas Vassilopoulos and Phoebe Koundouri

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Water accounts for more than 70% of Earth’s surface, making marine ecosystems the largest and most important ecosystems of the planet. However, the fact that a large part of these ... More

Valuation of Rainforest Preservation in the Amazon  

Jon Strand

Online publication date:
May 2019
Different ecosystem values of the Amazon rainforest are surveyed in economic terms. Spatial rainforest valuation is crucial for good forest management, such as where to put the most effort ... More

Valuation of Wetlands Preservation  

Alexandra Dehnhardt, Kati Häfner, Anna-Marie Blankenbach, and Jürgen Meyerhoff

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
All types of wetlands around the world are heavily threatened. According to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, they comprise “areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or ... More

Valuing the Benefits of Green Stormwater Infrastructure  

Amy W. Ando and Noelwah R. Netusil

Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI), a decentralized approach for managing stormwater that uses natural systems or engineered systems mimicking the natural environment, is being adopted ... More

Vermiculture in Greenhouse Plants, Field Crop Production, and Hydroponics  

Norman Q. Arancon and Zachary Solarte

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Vermiculture is the art, science, and industry of raising earthworms for baits, feeds, and composting of organic wastes. Composting through the action of earthworms and microogranisms is ... More

Water Footprint  

Maite M. Aldaya, M. Ramón Llamas, and Arjen Y. Hoekstra

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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