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Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology  

David Still

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Agriculture is practiced on 38% of the landmass on Earth, and having replaced natural ecosystems, it is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth. Agricultural biomes are typically focused on ... More

Addressing Climate Change Through Education  

Tamara Shapiro Ledley, Juliette Rooney-Varga, and Frank Niepold

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The scientific community has made the urgent need to mitigate climate change clear and, with the ratification of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ... More

Aerosols and Their Impact on Radiation, Clouds, Precipitation, and Severe Weather Events  

Zhanqing Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Jiwen Fan

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Aerosols (tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere) have been in the forefront of environmental and climate change sciences as the primary atmospheric pollutant and ... More

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe  

Aurélie Salavert

Along with ceramics production, sedentism, and herding, agriculture is a major component of the Neolithic as it is defined in Europe. Therefore, the agricultural system of the first ... More

Agricultural Energy Demand and Use  

David Roland-Holst

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
This overview article examines the historical and technical relationship between agrifood supply chains and energy services. Because agriculture is the original environmental science, all ... More

Agricultural Innovation and Dispersal in Eastern North America  

Kandace D. Hollenbach and Stephen B. Carmody

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The possibility that native peoples in eastern North America had cultivated plants prior to the introduction of maize was first raised in 1924. Scant evidence was available to support this ... More

Agricultural Methanogenesis  

Alexander N. Hristov

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Agriculture is a significant source of methane, contributing about 12% of the global anthropogenic methane emissions. Major sources of methane from agricultural activities are fermentation ... More

Agricultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution in Surface Waters  

Marianne Bechmann and Per Stålnacke

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Nutrient pollution can have a negative impact on the aquatic environment, with loss of biodiversity, toxic algal blooms, and a deficiency in dissolved oxygen in surface waters. Agricultural ... More

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia  

Alan Simmons

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Despite millennia of success as hunters and gatherers, some human groups made a monumental transition to agricultural economies and more sedentary lifeways, broadly referred to as the ... More

Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico  

Deborah L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Basin of Mexico is a key world region for understanding agricultural intensification and the development of ancient and historic cities and states. Archaeologists working in the region ... More

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment  

Heather Williams

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and ... More

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant  

John M. Marston

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The ancient Near East was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in the world, giving rise to domesticated herd animals, cereals, and legumes that today have become primary agricultural ... More

The Agriculture of Early India  

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
South Asia possesses a unique Neolithic transition to agricultural domestication. India has received far less attention in the quest for evidence of early agriculture than other regions of ... More

Agroecology  

Juha Helenius, Alexander Wezel, and Charles A. Francis

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Agroecology can be defined as scientific research on ecological sustainability of food systems. In addressing food production and consumption systems in their entirety, the focus ... More

Agroecology: Principles and Practices for Diverse, Resilient, and Productive Farming Systems  

Miguel A. Altieri

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Agroecology is a science that applies ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable agricultural ecosystems. Inspired by the diversified models of ... More

Agroforestry and Its Impact in Southeast Asia  

Christopher Hunt

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Research during the late 20th and early 21st centuries found that traces of human intervention in vegetation in Southeast Asian and Australasian forests started extremely early, quite ... More

Air Pollution and Weather Interaction in East Asia  

Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, and Congbin Fu

Air pollution is one of the grand environmental challenges in developing countries, especially those with high population density like China. High concentrations of primary and secondary ... More

Legal Regimes for Sharing Transboundary Water  

Mara Tignino

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The law applicable to transboundary waters is a corpus juris that dates back to the 19th century. It originally focused on regulating the uses of transboundary watercourses for navigation ... More

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture in South America: Highlands  

Geoffrey L. Taylor and Katherine L. Chiou

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture in South America: Tropical Lowlands  

Glenn H. Shepard Jr., Eduardo Neves, Charles R. Clement, Helena Lima, Claide Moraes, and Gilton Mendes dos Santos

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The tropical lowlands of South America were long thought of as a “counterfeit paradise,” a vast expanse of mostly pristine rainforests with poor soils for farming, limited protein ... More

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