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Aerosols and Their Impact on Radiation, Clouds, Precipitation, and Severe Weather Events  

Zhanqing Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Jiwen Fan

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Aerosols (tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere) have been in the forefront of environmental and climate change sciences as the primary atmospheric pollutant and ... More

Air Pollution and Weather Interaction in East Asia  

Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, and Congbin Fu

Online publication date:
May 2017
Air pollution is one of the grand environmental challenges in developing countries, especially those with high population density like China. High concentrations of primary and secondary ... More

Arid Environments  

Julie Laity

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Arid environments cover about one third of the Earth’s surface, comprising the most extensive of the terrestrial biomes. Deserts show considerable individual variation in climate, ... More

Changes in Land Use Influenced by Anthropogenic Activity  

Lang Wang and Zong-Liang Yang

Online publication date:
May 2020
The terms “land cover” and “land use” are often used interchangeably, although they have different meanings. Land cover is the biophysical material at the surface of the Earth, whereas land ... More

Ecosystem Management of the Boreal Forest  

Timo Kuuluvainen

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Boreal countries are rich in forest resources, and for their area, they produce a disproportionally large share of the lumber, pulp, and paper bound for the global market. These countries ... More

Environmental Geology and Sustainability of Deltas  

Enuvie G. Akpokodje

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environments, Environmental Issues and Problems
Deltas have played a significant role in the growth of human civilization because of their unique economic and ecological importance. However, deltas are becoming increasingly vulnerable ... More

How to Make Individual Transferable Quotas Work Economically, Socially, and Environmentally  

Rashid Sumaila

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environments, Environmental Economics
The economic tool of individual transferable quotas (ITQs) gives their owners exclusive and transferable rights to catch a given portion of the total allowable catch (TAC) of a given fish ... More

Mineral Dust Cycle  

Irina Sokolik

Online publication date:
May 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environments, Environment and Human Health
There is scientific consensus that human activities have been altering the atmospheric composition and are a key driver of global climate and environmental changes since pre-industrial ... More

The Oceans and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Michael Depledge, Niall McDonough, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl, Melanie Austen, Anders Goksoyr, Helena Solo-Gabriele, and John Stegeman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environments, Environment and Human Health
The interdisciplinary study of oceans and human health is an area of increasing global importance. There is a growing body of evidence that the health of the oceans and that of humans are ... More

Urban Heat Islands and Their Associated Impacts on Health  

Clare Heaviside

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environments, Environment and Human Health
Towns and cities generally exhibit higher temperatures than rural areas for a number of reasons, including the effect that urban materials have on the natural balance of incoming and ... More

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