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Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe  

Aurélie Salavert

Along with ceramics production, sedentism, and herding, agriculture is a major component of the Neolithic as it is defined in Europe. Therefore, the agricultural system of the first ... More

Agricultural Innovation and Dispersal in Eastern North America  

Kandace D. Hollenbach and Stephen B. Carmody

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The possibility that native peoples in eastern North America had cultivated plants prior to the introduction of maize was first raised in 1924. Scant evidence was available to support this ... More

Agricultural Methanogenesis  

Alexander N. Hristov

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Agriculture is a significant source of methane, contributing about 12% of the global anthropogenic methane emissions. Major sources of methane from agricultural activities are fermentation ... More

Agricultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution in Surface Waters  

Marianne Bechmann and Per Stålnacke

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Nutrient pollution can have a negative impact on the aquatic environment, with loss of biodiversity, toxic algal blooms, and a deficiency in dissolved oxygen in surface waters. ... More

Agricultural Origins and their Consequences in Southwestern Asia  

Alan Simmons

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico  

Deborah L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Basin of Mexico is a key world region for understanding agricultural intensification and the development of ancient and historic cities and states. Archaeologists working in the region ... More

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment  

Heather Williams

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and ... More

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant  

John M. Marston

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The ancient Near East was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in the world, giving rise to domesticated herd animals, cereals, and legumes that today have become primary ... More

The Agriculture of Early India  

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
South Asia possesses a unique Neolithic transition to agricultural domestication. India has received far less attention in the quest for evidence of early agriculture than other regions of ... More

Agroecology  

Juha Helenius, Alexander Wezel, and Charles A. Francis

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Agroecology can be defined as scientific research on ecological sustainability of food systems. In addressing food production and consumption systems in their entirety, the focus ... More

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture in South America: Highlands  

Geoffrey L. Taylor and Katherine L. Chiou

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

An Image Reconnaissance: Agricultural Patterns and Related Environmental Impacts Viewed From Space  

Richard W. Hazlett and Joshua Peck

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Satellite reconnaissance of the Earth’s surface provides critical information about the state of human interaction with the natural environment. The strongest impact is agricultural, ... More

Barley in Archaeology and Early History  

Simone Riehl

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In 2018 barley accounts for only 5% of the cereal production worldwide, and regionally for up to 40% of cereal production. The cereal represents the oldest crop species and is one of the ... More

CAFOs: Farm Animals and Industrialized Livestock Production  

James M. MacDonald

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Industrialized livestock production can be characterized by five key attributes: confinement feeding of animals, separation of feed and livestock production, specialization, large size, ... More

Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization  

Elisabeth N. Bui

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of ... More

Citrus History, Taxonomy, Breeding, and Fruit Quality  

Paolo Inglese and Giuseppe Sortino

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In May, every year since 1857, in the great park of Sans-Souci in Potsdam just outside Berlin—a park begun in 1745 by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenzollern and expanded a century later by ... More

Classification and Mitigation of Soil Salinization  

Tibor Tóth

Soil salinity has been causing problems for agriculturists for millennia, primarily in irrigated lands. The importance of salinity issues is increasing, since large areas are affected by ... More

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa  

Laura Pereira

Confidence in the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In ... More

Crop Production Resilience through Biodiversity for Adaptation to Climate Change  

Charles A. Francis

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Adaptation of cropping systems to weather uncertainty and climate change is essential for resilient food production and long-term food security. Changes in climate result in substantial ... More

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits  

Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, and Faisal Nadeem

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Planned crop rotation offers a pragmatic option to improve soil fertility, manage insect pests and diseases, and offset the emission of greenhouse gases. The inclusion of legume crops in ... More

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