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Benefit Transfer for Ecosystem Services  

Kevin J. Boyle and Christopher F. Parmeter

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Benefit transfer is the projection of benefits from one place and time to another time at the same place or to a new place. Thus, benefit transfer includes the adaptation of an original ... More

Big Data in Environment and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Niccolò Tempini, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Gordon L. Nichols, Christophe Sarran, Paolo Vineis, Giovanni Leonardi, Brian Golding, Andy Haines, Anthony Kessel, Virginia Murray, Michael Depledge, and Sabina Leonelli

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Big data refers to large, complex, potentially linkable data from diverse sources, ranging from the genome and social media, to individual health information and the ... More

Biodiversity Generation and Loss  

T.H. Oliver

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Human activities in the Anthropocene are influencing the twin processes of biodiversity generation and loss in complex ways that threaten the maintenance of biodiversity levels that ... More

Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities  

Peter Kareiva and Isaac Kareiva

The concept of biodiversity hotspots arose as a science-based framework with which to identify high-priority areas for habitat protection and conservation—often in the form of nature ... More

Biodiversity in Heterogeneous and Dynamic Landscapes  

Clélia Sirami

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Although the concept of biodiversity emerged 30 years ago, patterns and processes influencing ecological diversity have been studied for more than a century. Historically, ecological ... More

CAFOs: Farm Animals and Industrialized Livestock Production  

James M. MacDonald

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Industrialized livestock production can be characterized by five key attributes: confinement feeding of animals, separation of feed and livestock production, specialization, large size, ... More

Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization  

Elisabeth N. Bui

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of ... More

Cities, Green Space, and Mental Well-Being  

Jenny Roe

Mental and behavioral disorders account for approximately 7.4% of the global burden of disease, with depression now the world’s leading cause of disability. One in four people in the ... More

Citrus History, Taxonomy, Breeding, and Fruit Quality  

Paolo Inglese and Giuseppe Sortino

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In May, every year since 1857, in the great park of Sans-Souci in Potsdam just outside Berlin—a park begun in 1745 by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenzollern and expanded a century later by ... More

Classification and Mitigation of Soil Salinization  

Tibor Tóth

Soil salinity has been causing problems for agriculturists for millennia, primarily in irrigated lands. The importance of salinity issues is increasing, since large areas are affected by ... More

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa  

Laura Pereira

Confidence in the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In ... More

Conservation in the Amazon: Evolution and Situation  

Marc Dourojeanni

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
In 1945 the Amazon biome was almost intact. Marks of ancient cultural developments in Andean and lowland Amazon had cicatrized and the impacts of rubber and more recent resources ... More

Crop Production Resilience through Biodiversity for Adaptation to Climate Change  

Charles A. Francis

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Adaptation of cropping systems to weather uncertainty and climate change is essential for resilient food production and long-term food security. Changes in climate result in substantial ... More

The Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Mushrooms  

Shu Ting Chang and Solomon P. Wasser

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The word mushroom may mean different things to different people in different countries. Specialist studies on the value of mushrooms and their products should have a clear definition of ... More

Cultivation and Impact of Wheat  

Peter Shewry

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Wheat is the most widely grown food crop in the world and the dominant staple crop in temperate countries where it contributes between about 20% and 50% of the total energy intake. About ... More

Cultivation, Improvement, and Environmental Impacts of Tea  

Mainaak Mukhopadhyay and Tapan Kumar Mondal

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Tea, the globally admired, non-alcoholic, caffeine-containing beverage, is manufactured from the tender leaves of the tea [Camellia sinensis (L.)] plant. It is basically a woody, perennial ... More

Dairy, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Christopher Lu

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Dairy has intertwined with human society since the beginning of civilization. It evolves from art in ancient society to science in the modern world. Its roles in nutrition and health are ... More

Deforestation  

Christiane Runyan and Jeff Stehm

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon  

Phillip Fearnside

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia destroys environmental services that are important for the whole world, and especially for Brazil itself. These services include maintaining ... More

Deliberative Monetary Valuation  

Bartosz Bartkowski and Nele Lienhoop

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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