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Desalination Technology and Advancement  

P.S. Goh, A.F. Ismail, and N. Hilal

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Water scarcity as an outcome of global population expansion, climate change, and industrialization calls for new and innovative technologies to provide sustainable solutions to address ... More

The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis  

William Ruddiman

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Throughout the 1900s, the warmth of the current interglaciation was viewed as completely natural in origin (prior to greenhouse-gas emissions during the industrial era). In the view of ... More

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia  

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The domestication of livestock animals has long been recognized as one of the most important and influential events in human prehistory and has been the subject of scholarly inquiry for ... More

Ecological Effects of Environmental Stressors  

Bill Freedman

Regimes of environmental stress are exceedingly complex. Particular stressors exist within continua of intensity of environmental factors. Those factors interact with each other, and their ... More

Economics of Invasive Species  

Mark Eiswerth, Chad Lawley, and Michael H. Taylor

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Introductions of non-native invasive species can harm ecosystems, heighten the risk of native species extinctions and population reductions, and lead to substantial economic damages on a ... More

Economics of Low Carbon Agriculture  

Dominic Moran and Jorie Knook

Climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture through greater weather variability and the increasing frequency of extreme events. International policy is rightly ... More

The Economics of Oil Spills  

Maria L. Loureiro and Maria Alló

Online publication date:
May 2017
Vessel oil spills are very serious natural hazards that have affected coasts worldwide for many decades. Although oil spills from tankers are highly publicized, very little is known about ... More

Economics of Reforestation and Afforestation  

Daowei Zhang

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been harvested or depleted, and afforestation is the establishing of a forest in an area ... More

The Economics of Watershed Management  

Brent M. Haddad

Watersheds are physical regions from which all arriving water flows to a single exit point. The shared hydrology means that other biophysical systems are linked, typically with ... More

Ecosystem Management of the Boreal Forest  

Timo Kuuluvainen

Boreal countries are rich in forest resources, and for their area, they produce a disproportionally large share of the lumber, pulp, and paper bound for the global market. These countries ... More

Ecosystem Services  

Leon C. Braat

The concept of ecosystem services considers the usefulness of nature for human society. The economic importance of nature was described and analyzed in the 18th century, but the term ... More

Ecosystem Services and Human Health  

Elisabet Lindgren and Thomas Elmqvist

Ecosystem services refer to benefits for human societies and well-being obtained from ecosystems. Research on health effects of ecosystem services have until recently mostly focused on ... More

Ecotourism  

Giles Jackson and Megan Epler Wood

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Effective Practices in Mitigating Soil Erosion from Fields  

Vincenzo Bagarello

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Soil erosion by water is a natural process that cannot be avoided. Soil erosion depends on many factors, and a distinction should be made between humanly unchangeable (e.g., rainfall) and ... More

The Emergence of Environment as a Security Imperative  

Felix Dodds

The emergence of environment as a security imperative is something that could have been avoided. Early indications showed that if governments did not pay attention to critical ... More

Environmental Accounting  

Jean Louis Weber

Environmental accounting is an attempt to broaden the scope of the accounting frameworks used to assess economic performance, to take stock of elements that are not recorded in public or ... More

Environmental Benefits and Concerns of Center-Pivot Irrigation  

Leonor Rodriguez Sinobas

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Center-pivot irrigation systems started in the United States in the mid-20th century as an irrigation method which surpassed the traditional surface irrigation methods. At that time, they ... More

Environmental Change, Migration, and Population Health  

Celia McMichael

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Global environmental change amplifies and creates pressures that shape human migration. In the 21st century, there has been increasing focus on the complexities of migration and ... More

Environmental Economic Instruments in Mexico  

Marisol Rivera-Planter, Carlos Muñoz-Piña, and Mariza Montes de Oca

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Environmental Economics and the Anthropocene  

V. Kerry Smith

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Geologists’ reframing of the global changes arising from human impacts can be used to consider how the insights from environmental economics inform policy under this new perspective. They ... More

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