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Crop Production Resilience through Biodiversity for Adaptation to Climate Change  

Charles A. Francis

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Adaptation of cropping systems to weather uncertainty and climate change is essential for resilient food production and long-term food security. Changes in climate result in substantial ... More

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits  

Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, and Faisal Nadeem

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Planned crop rotation offers a pragmatic option to improve soil fertility, manage insect pests and diseases, and offset the emission of greenhouse gases. The inclusion of legume crops in ... More

Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Corn  

Emerson Nafziger

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Corn ranks first among crops in quantity produced globally, owing to its high yield and to its value as a food for humans and domestic animals. While its water-use efficiency is high ... More

The Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Mushrooms  

Shu Ting Chang and Solomon P. Wasser

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The word mushroom may mean different things to different people in different countries. Specialist studies on the value of mushrooms and their products should have a clear definition of the ... More

Environmental Footprints of Modernization Trends in Rice Production Systems of Southeast Asia  

Reiner Wassmann

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Assessing the environmental footprints of modern agriculture requires a balanced approach that sets the obviously negative effects (e.g., incidents with excessive use of inputs) against ... More

Cultivation and Impact of Wheat  

Peter Shewry

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Wheat is the most widely grown food crop in the world and the dominant staple crop in temperate countries where it contributes between about 20% and 50% of the total energy intake. About ... More

Cultivation, Improvement, and Environmental Impacts of Tea  

Mainaak Mukhopadhyay and Tapan Kumar Mondal

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Tea, the globally admired, non-alcoholic, caffeine-containing beverage, is manufactured from the tender leaves of the tea [Camellia sinensis (L.)] plant. It is basically a woody, perennial ... More

Dairy, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Christopher Lu

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Dairy has intertwined with human society since the beginning of civilization. It evolves from art in ancient society to science in the modern world. Its roles in nutrition and health are ... More

Deforestation  

Christiane Runyan and Jeff Stehm

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon  

Phillip Fearnside

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia destroys environmental services that are important for the whole world, and especially for Brazil itself. These services include maintaining ... More

Deliberative Monetary Valuation  

Bartosz Bartkowski and Nele Lienhoop

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
While economic values of nonmarket ecosystem goods and services are in high demand to inform decision-making processes, economic valuation has also attracted significant criticism. ... More

Desalination Technology and Advancement  

P.S. Goh, A.F. Ismail, and N. Hilal

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Water scarcity as an outcome of global population expansion, climate change, and industrialization calls for new and innovative technologies to provide sustainable solutions to address this ... More

The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis  

William Ruddiman

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Throughout the 1900s, the warmth of the current interglaciation was viewed as completely natural in origin (prior to greenhouse-gas emissions during the industrial era). In the view of ... More

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia  

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The domestication of livestock animals has long been recognized as one of the most important and influential events in human prehistory and has been the subject of scholarly inquiry for ... More

Ecological Effects of Environmental Stressors  

Bill Freedman

Regimes of environmental stress are exceedingly complex. Particular stressors exist within continua of intensity of environmental factors. Those factors interact with each other, and their ... More

Economics, Agriculture, and Famines  

Noel Russell

There are continuing developments in the analysis of hunger and famines, and the results of theoretical and empirical studies of hunger and food insecurity highlight cases where hunger ... More

Economics of Invasive Species  

Mark Eiswerth, Chad Lawley, and Michael H. Taylor

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Introductions of non-native invasive species can harm ecosystems, heighten the risk of native species extinctions and population reductions, and lead to substantial economic damages on a ... More

Economics of Low Carbon Agriculture  

Dominic Moran and Jorie Knook

Climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture through greater weather variability and the increasing frequency of extreme events. International policy is rightly ... More

The Economics of Oil Spills  

Maria L. Loureiro and Maria Alló

Online publication date:
May 2017
Vessel oil spills are very serious natural hazards that have affected coasts worldwide for many decades. Although oil spills from tankers are highly publicized, very little is known about ... More

Economics of Reforestation and Afforestation  

Daowei Zhang

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been harvested or depleted, and afforestation is the establishing of a forest in an area ... More

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