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Global Biogeochemical Cycling  

Fred Mackenzie and Abraham Lerman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The tendency to represent natural processes as cycles—from Latin cyclus and Greek κυκλος—is undoubtedly rooted in the human observations of repeating or periodic phenomena. The oldest ... More

Global Climate Change and the Reallocation of Water  

Rhett B. Larson

Increased water variability is one of the most pressing challenges presented by global climate change. A warmer atmosphere will hold more water and will result in more frequent and more ... More

The Global Groundwater Revolution  

Jac van der Gun

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Human behavior in relation to groundwater has remained relatively unchanged from ancient times until the early 20th century. Intercepting water from springs or exploiting shallow aquifers ... More

Global-Scale Impact of Human Nitrogen Fixation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Wim De Vries, Enzai Du, Klaus Butterbach Bahl, Lena Schulte Uebbing, and Frank Dentener

Human activities have rapidly accelerated global nitrogen (N) cycling since the late 19th century. This acceleration has manifold impacts on ecosystem N and carbon (C) cycles, and thus on ... More

Green Water  

Garrison Sposito

Precipitation falling onto the land surface in terrestrial ecosystems is transformed into either “green water” or “blue water.” Green water is the portion stored in soil and potentially ... More

Historical Development of the Global Water Cycle as a Science Framework  

Richard G. Lawford and Sushel Unninayar

The global water cycle concept has its roots in the ancient understanding of nature. Indeed, the Greeks and Hebrews documented some of the most some important hydrological processes. ... More

A Historical Perspective of Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Public Health  

Erin N. Haynes, Lisa McKenzie, Stephanie A. Malin, and John W. Cherrie

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Technological advances in directional well drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enabled extraction of oil and gas from once unobtainable geological formations. These unconventional oil ... More

History of Agriculture in the United States  

Pamela Riney-Kehrberg

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Agriculture is at the very center of the human enterprise; its trappings are in evidence all around, yet the agricultural past is an exceptionally distant place from modern America. While ... More

History of Ecological Design  

Lydia Kallipoliti

The term ecological design was coined in a 1996 book by Sim van der Ryn and Stewart Cowan, in which the authors argued for a seamless integration of human activities with natural processes ... More

History and Assessment of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services  

Céline Granjou and Isabelle Arpin

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The recent implementation of the IPBES is a major cornerstone in the transformation of the international environmental governance in the early 21st century. Often presented as “the IPCC ... More

Household Air Pollution in Low and Middle Income Countries  

Caroline A. Ochieng, Cathryn Tonne, Sotiris Vardoulakis, and Jan Semenza

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Household air pollution from use of solid fuels (biomass fuels and coal) is a major problem in low and middle income countries, where 90% of the population relies on these fuels as the ... More

How Environmental Degradation Impoverishes the Poor  

Edward B. Barbier

Globally, around 1.5 billion people in developing countries, or approximately 35% of the rural population, can be found on less-favored agricultural land (LFAL), which is susceptible to ... More

How to Make Individual Transferable Quotas Work Economically, Socially, and Environmentally  

Rashid Sumaila

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The economic tool of individual transferable quotas (ITQs) gives their owners exclusive and transferable rights to catch a given portion of the total allowable catch (TAC) of a given fish ... More

Human Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan  

Simon Holdaway and Rebecca Phillipps

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Northeast Africa forms an interesting case study for investigating the relationship between changes in environment and agriculture. Major climatic changes in the early Holocene led to ... More

Hunter-Gatherer Economies in the Old World and New World  

Christopher Morgan, Shannon Tushingham, Raven Garvey, Loukas Barton, and Robert Bettinger

At the global scale, conceptions of hunter-gatherer economies have changed considerably over time and these changes were strongly affected by larger trends in Western history, philosophy, ... More

The Impacts of Environmental Regulation on the U.S. Economy  

Ann E. Ferris, Richard Garbaccio, Alex Marten, and Ann Wolverton

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Concern regarding the economic impacts of environmental regulations has been part of the public dialogue since the beginning of the U.S. EPA. Even as large improvements in environmental ... More

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems  

Maria C. Bruno

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
World food systems in the 21st century comprise domesticated plant and animal species that originated from nearly every continent on the globe, spread through exchange and trade, and have ... More

Indigenous Polynesian Agriculture in Hawaiʻi  

Noa Kekuewa Lincoln and Peter Vitousek

Agriculture in Hawaiʻi was developed in response to the high spatial heterogeneity of climate and landscape of the archipelago, resulting in a broad range of agricultural strategies. Over ... More

Indoor Air Pollution in Developed Countries  

Richard Sharpe, Nicholas Osborne, Sotiris Vardoulakis, and Sani Dimitroulopoulou

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Industrialization of Commercial Fishing, 1930–2016  

Carmel Finley

Nations rapidly industrialized after World War II, sharply increasing the extraction of resources from the natural world. Colonial empires broke up on land after the war, but they were ... More

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