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The Industrialization of Commercial Fishing, 1930–2016  

Carmel Finley

Nations rapidly industrialized after World War II, sharply increasing the extraction of resources from the natural world. Colonial empires broke up on land after the war, but they were ... More

Input-Output Models Applied to Environmental Analysis  

Joaquim Guilhoto

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Interface Urban Forest Management in an Urbanizing Landscape  

Maria A. Cunha-e-Sá and Sofia F. Franco

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

International Environmental Conventions on Biodiversity  

Matti Nummelin and Niko Urho

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity have been in the center of policy creation for half a century. The main international biodiversity conventions and processes include the ... More

The Life Satisfaction Approach to Environmental Valuation  

Christopher Fleming and Christopher Ambrey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The method and practice of placing monetary values on environmental goods and services for which a conventional market price is otherwise unobservable is one of the most fertile areas of ... More

Market Failures, the Environment, and Human Health  

Karyn Morrissey

Online publication date:
May 2018
Knowledge of the important role that the environment plays in determining human health predates the modern public health era. However, the tendency to see health, disease, and their ... More

Material and Energy Flow Analysis  

Vincent Moreau and Guillaume Massard

The concept of metabolism takes root in biology and ecology as a systematic way to account for material flows in organisms and ecosystems. Early applications of the concept attempted to ... More

Measuring Soil Loss and Subsequent Nutrient and Organic Matter Loss on Farmland  

Vito Ferro and Vincenzo Bagarello

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Field plots are often used to obtain experimental data (soil loss values corresponding to different climate, soil, topographic, crop, and management conditions) for predicting and ... More

Mineral Dust Cycle  

Irina Sokolik

Online publication date:
May 2016
There is scientific consensus that human activities have been altering the atmospheric composition and are a key driver of global climate and environmental changes since pre-industrial ... More

Mining, Ecological Engineering, and Metals Extraction for the 21st Century  

Margarete Kalin, William N. Wheeler, Michael P. Sudbury, and Bryn Harris

The first treatise on mining and extractive metallurgy, published by Georgius Agricola in 1556, was also the first to highlight the destructive environmental side effects of mining and ... More

Modeling the Impact of Environment on Infectious Diseases  

Giovanni Lo Iacono and Gordon L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The introduction of pasteurization, antibiotics, and vaccinations, as well as improved sanitation, hygiene, and education, were critical in reducing the burden of infectious diseases and ... More

Monitoring and Modeling of Outdoor Air Pollution  

Stefan Reis

Air pollution has been a major threat to human health, ecosystems, and agricultural crops ever since the onset of widespread use of fossil fuel combustion and emissions of harmful ... More

National Parks in Developed Countries  

Leslie Richardson and Bruce Peacock

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Economics plays an important role not only in the management of national parks in developed countries, but also in demonstrating the contribution of these areas to societal well-being. The ... More

Natural Environments, Health, and Well-Being  

Matilda van den Bosch

Human beings are part of natural ecosystems and depend on them for their survival. In a rapidly changing environment and with increasing urbanization, this dependence is challenged. ... More

Nomadism  

Philip Carl Salzman

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Nomadism is a technique of population movement used to accomplish a variety of goals. It is used for primary production when the resources to be tapped are distributed thinly over a wide ... More

Nutrient Pollution and Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Archis R. Ambulkar

Since the industrial revolution, societies across the globe have observed significant urbanization and population growth. Newer technologies, industries, and manufacturing plants have ... More

Oats and Other Forage Crops  

Daren Redfearn

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Oceans and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Michael Depledge, Niall McDonough, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl, Melanie Austen, Anders Goksoyr, Helena Solo-Gabriele, and John Stegeman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The interdisciplinary study of oceans and human health is an area of increasing global importance. There is a growing body of evidence that the health of the oceans and that of humans are ... More

Organic Farming  

Theodore J. K. Radovich

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Organic farming occupies a unique position among the world’s agricultural systems. While not the only available model for sustainable food production, organic farmers and their supporters ... More

Origin and Development of Agriculture in New Guinea, Island Melanesia and Polynesia  

Tim Denham

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Early agricultural and arboricultural practices in the Pacific are based on vegetative principles, namely, the asexual propagation and transplantation of plants. A vegetative orientation ... More

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