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Payments versus Direct Controls for Environmental Externalities in Agriculture  

Alfons Weersink and David Pannell

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The production of food, fiber, and fuel often results in negative externalities due to impacts on soil, water, air, or habitat. There are two broad ways to incentivize farmers to alter ... More

Pesticides and Human Health  

Pierluigi Cocco

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The fight against agricultural and household pests accompanies the history of humanity, and a total ban on the use of pesticides seems unlikely to happen in the foreseeable future. ... More

Pollen, Allergens, and Human Health  

Rachel N. McInnes

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Allergenic pollen is produced by the flowers of a number of trees, grasses, and weeds found throughout the world. Human exposure to such pollen grains can exacerbate pollen-related asthma ... More

Pollution in Terrestrial and Aquatic Sediment  

Rodney Stevens

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Prehistoric and Traditional Agriculture in Lowland Mesoamerica  

Clarissa Cagnato

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Mesoamerica is one of the world’s primary centers of domestication where agriculture arose independently. Paleoethnobotany (or archaeobotany), along with archaeology, epigraphy, and ... More

Pros and Cons of GMO Crop Farming  

Rene Van Acker, Motior Rahman, and S. Zahra H. Cici

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The global area sown to genetically modified (GM) varieties of leading commercial crops (soybean, maize, canola, and cotton) has expanded over 100-fold over two decades. Thirty countries ... More

Quaternary Science  

Kenneth Addison

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability  

Peter J. Schubert

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Renewable energy was used exclusively by the first humans and is likely to be the predominant source for future humans. Between these times the use of extracted resources such as coal, ... More

Resilience  

Carl Folke

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Resilience thinking in relation to the environment has emerged as a lens of inquiry that serves a platform for interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration. Resilience is about cultivating ... More

Rethinking Conflict over Water  

Scott M. Moore

It has long been accepted that non-renewable natural resources like oil and gas are often the subject of conflict between both nation-states and social groups. But since the end of the ... More

Rewilding  

Jozef Keulartz

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Rewilding aims at maintaining or even increasing biodiversity through the restoration of ecological and evolutionary processes using extant keystone species or ecological replacements of ... More

Risk Perception and Its Impacts on Risk Governance  

Ortwin Renn and Andreas Klinke

Risk perception is an important component of risk governance, but it cannot and should not determine environmental policies. The reality is that people suffer and die as a result of false ... More

Risks for Occupational Health Hazards Among Solid Waste Workers  

Mehrad Bastani, Nurcin Celik, and Danielle Coogan

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Role of Cover Crops in Agriculture and Their Environmental Significance  

Helena Aronsson

Growing a cover crop between main crops imitates natural ecosystems where the soil is continuously covered with vegetation. This is an important management practice in preserving soil ... More

Sea Level Rise and Coastal Management  

James B. London

Coastal zone management (CZM) has evolved since the enactment of the U.S. Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, which was the first comprehensive program of its type. The newer iteration of ... More

Seed Banking as Future Insurance Against Crop Collapses  

Fiona Hay

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Food security is dependent on the work of plant scientists and breeders who develop new varieties of crops that are high yielding, nutritious, and tolerate a range of biotic and abiotic ... More

Sentinel Species of Marine Ecosystems  

Maria Cristina Fossi and Cristina Panti

A vigorous effort to identify and study sentinel species of marine ecosystem in the world’s oceans has developed over the past 50 years. The One Health concept recognizes that the health ... More

Social and Environmental Implications of Plantation Agriculture in Malaysia and Indonesia  

Jean-François Bissonnette and Rodolphe De Koninck

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Plantation farming emerged as a large-scale system of specialized agriculture in the tropics under European colonialism, in opposition to smallholding subsistence agriculture. Despite ... More

Socio-Technical Transitions to Sustainability  

Frank W. Geels

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Addressing persistent environmental problems such as climate change or biodiversity loss requires shifts to new kinds of energy, mobility, housing, and agro-food systems. These shifts are ... More

Soil Quality as Affected by Intensive Versus Conservative Agricultural Managements  

Luigi Badalucco

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Soils, the earth’s skin, are at the intersection of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. The persistence of life on our planet depends on the maintenance of soils as ... More

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