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Modeling the Impact of Environment on Infectious Diseases  

Giovanni Lo Iacono and Gordon L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The introduction of pasteurization, antibiotics, and vaccinations, as well as improved sanitation, hygiene, and education, were critical in reducing the burden of infectious diseases and ... More

Monitoring and Modeling of Outdoor Air Pollution  

Stefan Reis

Air pollution has been a major threat to human health, ecosystems, and agricultural crops ever since the onset of widespread use of fossil fuel combustion and emissions of harmful ... More

National Parks in Developed Countries  

Leslie Richardson and Bruce Peacock

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Economics plays an important role not only in the management of national parks in developed countries, but also in demonstrating the contribution of these areas to societal well-being. The ... More

Natural Environments, Health, and Well-Being  

Matilda van den Bosch

Human beings are part of natural ecosystems and depend on them for their survival. In a rapidly changing environment and with increasing urbanization, this dependence is challenged. ... More

Nomadism  

Philip Carl Salzman

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Nomadism is a technique of population movement used to accomplish a variety of goals. It is used for primary production when the resources to be tapped are distributed thinly over a wide ... More

Nutrient Pollution and Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Archis R. Ambulkar

Since the industrial revolution, societies across the globe have observed significant urbanization and population growth. Newer technologies, industries, and manufacturing plants have ... More

Oats and Other Forage Crops  

Daren Redfearn

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Oceans and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Michael Depledge, Niall McDonough, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl, Melanie Austen, Anders Goksoyr, Helena Solo-Gabriele, and John Stegeman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The interdisciplinary study of oceans and human health is an area of increasing global importance. There is a growing body of evidence that the health of the oceans and that of humans are ... More

Organic Farming  

Theodore J. K. Radovich

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Organic farming occupies a unique position among the world’s agricultural systems. While not the only available model for sustainable food production, organic farmers and their supporters ... More

Origin and Development of Agriculture in New Guinea, Island Melanesia and Polynesia  

Tim Denham

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Early agricultural and arboricultural practices in the Pacific are based on vegetative principles, namely, the asexual propagation and transplantation of plants. A vegetative orientation ... More

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Program Design and Participation  

Natasha James and Erin Sills

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Payments for ecosystem or environmental services (PES) are broadly defined as payments (in kind or in cash) to participants (often landowners) who volunteer to provide the services either ... More

Payments versus Direct Controls for Environmental Externalities in Agriculture  

Alfons Weersink and David Pannell

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The production of food, fiber, and fuel often results in negative externalities due to impacts on soil, water, air, or habitat. There are two broad ways to incentivize farmers to alter ... More

Pesticides and Human Health  

Pierluigi Cocco

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The fight against agricultural and household pests accompanies the history of humanity, and a total ban on the use of pesticides seems unlikely to happen in the foreseeable future. ... More

Politics of Water Flows: Water Supply, Sanitation, and Drainage  

Tatiana Acevedo Guerrero

Since the late 20th century, water and sanitation management has been deeply influenced by ideas from economics, specifically by the doctrine of neoliberalism. The resulting set of policy ... More

Pollen, Allergens, and Human Health  

Rachel N. McInnes

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Allergenic pollen is produced by the flowers of a number of trees, grasses, and weeds found throughout the world. Human exposure to such pollen grains can exacerbate pollen-related asthma ... More

Pollution in Terrestrial and Aquatic Sediment  

Rodney Stevens

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Prehistoric and Traditional Agriculture in Lowland Mesoamerica  

Clarissa Cagnato

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Mesoamerica is one of the world’s primary centers of domestication where agriculture arose independently. Paleoethnobotany (or archaeobotany), along with archaeology, epigraphy, and ... More

Pros and Cons of GMO Crop Farming  

Rene Van Acker, Motior Rahman, and S. Zahra H. Cici

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The global area sown to genetically modified (GM) varieties of leading commercial crops (soybean, maize, canola, and cotton) has expanded over 100-fold over two decades. Thirty countries ... More

Quaternary Science  

Kenneth Addison

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability  

Peter J. Schubert

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Renewable energy was used exclusively by the first humans and is likely to be the predominant source for future humans. Between these times the use of extracted resources such as coal, ... More

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