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Soil Resources, the Delivery of Ecosystem Services and Value  

David A. Robinson, Fiona Seaton, Katrina Sharps, Amy Thomas, Francis Parry Roberts, Martine van der Ploeg, Laurence Jones, Jannes Stolte, Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, Paula Harrison, and Bridget Emmett

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Soils provide important functions, which according to the European Commission include: biomass production (e.g., agriculture and forestry); storing, filtering, and transforming nutrients, ... More

Soil Salinization  

Pichu Rengasamy

Salt accumulation in soils, affecting agricultural productivity, environmental health, and the economy of the community, is a global phenomenon since the decline of ancient Mesopotamian ... More

Soil Sediment Loading and Related Environmental Impacts from Farms  

Vito Ferro

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Beyond damage to rainfed agricultural and forestry ecosystems, soil erosion due to water affects surrounding environments. Large amounts of eroded soil are deposited in streams, lakes, and ... More

Soils, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Colin Robins

Soils are the complex, dynamic, spatially diverse, living, and environmentally sensitive foundations of terrestrial ecosystems as well as human civilizations. The modern, environmental ... More

Soil Tilth and Management  

Lars J. Munkholm, Mansonia Pulido-Moncada, and Peter Bilson Obour

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Soil tilth is a dynamic and multifaceted concept that refers to the suitability of a soil for planting and growing crops. A soil with good tilth is “usually loose, friable and well ... More

Subsurface Flow of Water in Soils and Geological Formations  

Gerrit de Rooij

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Henry Darcy was an engineer who built the drinking water supply system of the French city of Dijon in the mid-19th century. In doing so, he developed an interest in the flow of water ... More

Subsurface (Tile) Agricultural Drainage  

Gary Sands, Srinivasulu Ale, Laura Christianson, and Nathan Utt

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Agricultural (tile) drainage enables agricultural production on millions of hectares of arable lands worldwide. Lands where drainage or irrigation (and sometimes both) are implemented, ... More

Surface Irrigation  

Luis S. Pereira and José M. Gonçalves

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Surface irrigation is the oldest and most widely used irrigation method, more than 83% of the world’s irrigated area. It comprises traditional systems, developed over millennia, and modern ... More

Sustainable Coffee Production  

Sarada Krishnan

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Coffee is an extremely important agricultural commodity, produced in about 80 tropical countries, with an estimated 125 million people depending on it for their livelihoods in Latin ... More

Temperate Forest Economics  

Roger Sedjo

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The world’s forest cover is approximately 4 billion hectares (10 billion acres). Of this total, approximately one-half is temperate forests. These range from the subtropics to roughly 65 ... More

Terracing: From Agriculture to Multiple Ecosystem Services  

Paolo Socci, Alessandro Errico, Giulio Castelli, Daniele Penna, and Federico Preti

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Agricultural terraces are widely spread all over the world and are among the most evident landscape signatures of the human fingerprint, in many cases dating back to several centuries. ... More

The Qanat System of Iran and the Maghreb  

Ahmad Abbasnejad

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture, Pastoralism, and Agricultural Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Andrew B. Smith

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Urban Landscapes and Green Infrastructure  

Stephan Pauleit, Rieke Hansen, Emily Lorance Rall, Teresa Zölch, Erik Andersson, Ana Catarina Luz, Luca Szaraz, Ivan Tosics, and Kati Vierikko

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Urban green infrastructure (GI) has been promoted as an approach to respond to major urban environmental and social challenges such as reducing the ecological footprint, improving human ... More

Use of Property Values and Location Decisions for Environmental Valuation  

Lala Ma

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The economics literature has developed various methods to recover the values for environmental commodities. Two such methods related to revealed preference are property value hedonic ... More

Valuation of Mangrove Restoration  

Edward B. Barbier

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there has been strong interest globally in restoring mangrove ecosystems and their potential benefits from protecting coastlines and people from ... More

Valuation of Beach Quality  

Ashley Barfield and Craig E. Landry

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The result of interactive dynamics of the ocean, landforms, and weather patterns, sandy beaches and dunes are a natural feature along many coastlines around the world. Their contributions ... More

Valuation of Biodiversity  

Bartosz Bartkowski

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Valuation of Marine Ecosystems  

Achilleas Vassilopoulos and Phoebe Koundouri

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Water accounts for more than 70% of Earth’s surface, making marine ecosystems the largest and most important ecosystems of the planet. However, the fact that a large part of these ... More

Valuation of Rainforest Preservation in the Amazon  

Jon Strand

Online publication date:
May 2019
Different ecosystem values of the Amazon rainforest are surveyed in economic terms. Spatial rainforest valuation is crucial for good forest management, such as where to put the most effort ... More

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