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David A. Robinson, Fiona Seaton, Katrina Sharps, Amy Thomas, Francis Parry Roberts, Martine van der Ploeg, Laurence Jones, Jannes Stolte, Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, Paula Harrison, and Bridget Emmett
Soils provide important functions, which according to the European Commission include: biomass production (e.g., agriculture and forestry); storing, filtering, and transforming nutrients, substances, and water; harboring biodiversity (habitats, species, and genes); forming the physical and cultural environment for humans and their activities; providing raw materials; acting as a carbon pool; and forming an archive of geological and archaeological heritage, all of which support human society and planetary life. The basis of these functions is the soil natural capital, the stocks of soil material. Soil functions feed into a range of ecosystem services which in turn contribute to the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs). This overarching framework hides a range of complex, often nonlinear, biophysical interactions with feedbacks and perhaps yet to be discovered tipping points. Moreover, interwoven with this biophysical complexity are the interactions with human society and the socioeconomic system which often drives our attitudes toward, and the management and exploitation of, our environment.
Challenges abound, both social and environmental, in terms of how to feed an increasingly populous and material world, while maintaining some semblance of thriving ecosystems to pass on to future generations. How do we best steward the resources we have, keep them from degradation, and restore them where necessary as soils underpin life? How do we measure and quantify the soil resources we have, how are they changing in time and space, what can we predict about their future use and function? What is the value of soil resources, and how should we express it? This article explores how soil properties and processes underpin ecosystem services, how to measure and model them, and how to identify the wider benefits they provide to society. Furthermore, it considers value frameworks, including caring for our resources.
Salt accumulation in soils, affecting agricultural productivity, environmental health, and the economy of the community, is a global phenomenon since the decline of ancient Mesopotamian civilization by salinity. The global distribution of salt-affected soils is estimated to be around 830 million hectares extending over all the continents, including Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas. The concentration and composition of salts depend on several resources and processes of salt accumulation in soil layers. Major types of soil salinization include groundwater associated salinity, non–groundwater-associated salinity, and irrigation-induced salinity. There are several soil processes which lead to salt build-up in the root zone interfering with the growth and physiological functions of plants.
Salts, depending on the ionic composition and concentration, can also affect many soil processes, such as soil water dynamics, soil structural stability, solubility of essential nutrients, and pH and pE of soil water—all indirectly hindering plant growth. The direct effect of salinity includes the osmotic effect affecting water and nutrient uptake and the toxicity or deficiency due to high concentration of certain ions. The plan of action to resolve the problems associated with soil salinization should focus on prevention of salt accumulation, removal of accumulated salts, and adaptation to a saline environment. Successful utilization of salinized soils needs appropriate soil and irrigation management and improvement of plants by breeding and genetic engineering techniques to tolerate different levels of salinity and associated abiotic stress.
Beyond damage to rainfed agricultural and forestry ecosystems, soil erosion due to water affects surrounding environments. Large amounts of eroded soil are deposited in streams, lakes, and other ecosystems. The most costly off-site damages occur when eroded particles, transported along the hillslopes of a basin, arrive at the river network or are deposited in lakes. The negative effects of soil erosion include water pollution and siltation, organic matter loss, nutrient loss, and reduction in water storage capacity. Sediment deposition raises the bottom of waterways, making them more prone to overflowing and flooding. Sediments contaminate water ecosystems with soil particles and the fertilizer and pesticide chemicals they contain. Siltation of reservoirs and dams reduces water storage, increases the maintenance cost of dams, and shortens the lifetime of reservoirs. Sediment yield is the quantity of transported sediments, in a given time interval, from eroding sources through the hillslopes and river network to a basin outlet. Chemicals can also be transported together with the eroded sediments. Sediment deposition inside a reservoir reduces the water storage of a dam.
The prediction of sediment yield can be carried out by coupling an erosion model with a mathematical operator which expresses the sediment transport efficiency of the hillslopes and the channel network. The sediment lag between sediment yield and erosion can be simply represented by the sediment delivery ratio, which can be calculated at the outlet of the considered basin, or by using a distributed approach. The former procedure couples the evaluation of basin soil loss with an estimate of the sediment delivery ratio SDRW for the whole watershed. The latter procedure requires that the watershed be discretized into morphological units, areas having a constant steepness and a clearly defined length, for which the corresponding sediment delivery ratio is calculated. When rainfall reaches the surface horizon of the soil, some pollutants are desorbed and go into solution while others remain adsorbed and move with soil particles. The spatial distribution of the loading of nitrogen, phosphorous, and total organic carbon can be deduced using the spatial distribution of sediment yield and the pollutant content measured on soil samples. The enrichment concept is applied to clay, organic matter, and all pollutants adsorbed by soil particles, such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Knowledge of both the rate and pattern of sediment deposition in a reservoir is required to establish the remedial strategies which may be practicable. Repeated reservoir capacity surveys are used to determine the total volume occupied by sediment, the sedimentation pattern, and the shift in the stage-area and stage-storage curves. By converting the sedimentation volume to sediment mass, on the basis of estimated or measured bulk density, and correcting for trap efficiency, the sediment yield from the basin can be computed.
Soils are the complex, dynamic, spatially diverse, living, and environmentally sensitive foundations of terrestrial ecosystems as well as human civilizations. The modern, environmental study of soil is a truly young scientific discipline that emerged only in the late 19th century from foundations in agricultural chemistry, land resource mapping, and geology. Today, little more than a century later, soil science is a rigorously interdisciplinary field with a wide range of exciting applications in agronomy, ecology, environmental policy, geology, public health, and many other environmentally relevant disciplines. Soils form slowly, in response to five inter-related factors: climate, organisms, topography, parent material, and time. Consequently, many soils are chemically, biologically, and/or geologically unique. The profound importance of soil, combined with the threats of erosion, urban development, pollution, climate change, and other factors, are now prompting soil scientists to consider the application of endangered species concepts to rare or threatened soil around the world.
Lars J. Munkholm, Mansonia Pulido-Moncada, and Peter Bilson Obour
Soil tilth is a dynamic and multifaceted concept that refers to the suitability of a soil for planting and growing crops. A soil with good tilth is “usually loose, friable and well granulated”; a condition that can also be described as the soil’s having a good “self-mulching” ability. On the other hand soils with poor tilth are usually dense (compacted), with hard, blocky, or massive structural characteristics. Poor soil tilth is generally associated with compaction, induced by wheel traffic, animal trampling, and/or to natural soil consolidation (i.e., so-called hard-setting behavior). The soil-tilth concept dates back to the early days of arable farming and has been addressed in soil-science literature since the 1920s. Soil tilth is generally associated with soil’s physical properties and processes rather than the more holistic concepts of soil quality and soil health. Improved soil tilth has been associated with deep and intensive tillage, as those practices were traditionally considered the primary method for creating a suitable soil condition for plant growth. Therefore, for millennia there has been a strong focus both in practice and in research on developing tillage tools that create suitable growing conditions for different crops, soil types, and climatic conditions. Deep and intensive tillage may be appropriate for producing a good, short-term tilth, but may also lead to severe long-term degradation of the soil structure. The failure of methods relying on physical manipulation as means of sustaining good tilth has increased the recognition given to the important role that soil biota have in soil-structure formation and stabilization. Soil biology has only received substantial attention in soil science during the last few decades. One result of this is that this knowledge is now being used to optimize soil management through strategies such as more diverse rotations, cover crops, and crop-residue management, with these being applied either as single management components or more preferably as part of an integrated system (i.e., either conservation agriculture or organic farming).Traditionally, farmers have evaluated soil tilth qualitatively in the field. However, a number of quantitative or semi-quantitative procedures for assessing soil tilth has been developed over the last 80 years. These procedures vary from simply determining soil cloddiness to more detailed evaluations whereby soil’s physical properties (e.g., porosity, strength, and aggregate characteristics) are combined with its consistency and organic-matter measurements in soil-tilth indices. Semi-quantitative visual soil-evaluation methods have also been developed for field evaluation of soil tilth, and are now used in many countries worldwide.
Gerrit de Rooij
Henry Darcy was an engineer who built the drinking water supply system of the French city of Dijon in the mid-19th century. In doing so, he developed an interest in the flow of water through sands, and, together with Charles Ritter, he experimented (in a hospital, for unclear reasons) with water flow in a vertical cylinder filled with different sands to determine the laws of flow of water through sand. The results were published in an appendix to Darcy’s report on his work on Dijon’s water supply. Darcy and Ritter installed mercury manometers at the bottom and near the top of the cylinder, and they observed that the water flux density through the sand was proportional to the difference between the mercury levels. After mercury levels are converted to equivalent water levels and recast in differential form, this relationship is known as Darcy’s Law, and until this day it is the cornerstone of the theory of water flow in porous media. The development of groundwater hydrology and soil water hydrology that originated with Darcy’s Law is tracked through seminal contributions over the past 160 years.
Darcy’s Law was quickly adopted for calculating groundwater flow, which blossomed after the introduction of a few very useful simplifying assumptions that permitted a host of analytical solutions to groundwater problems, including flows toward pumped drinking water wells and toward drain tubes. Computers have made possible ever more advanced numerical solutions based on Darcy’s Law, which have allowed tailor-made computations for specific areas. In soil hydrology, Darcy’s Law itself required modification to facilitate its application for different soil water contents. The understanding of the relationship between the potential energy of soil water and the soil water content emerged early in the 20th century. The mathematical formalization of the consequences for the flow rate and storage change of soil water was established in the 1930s, but only after the 1970s did computers become powerful enough to tackle unsaturated flows head-on. In combination with crop growth models, this allowed Darcy-based models to aid in the setup of irrigation practices and to optimize drainage designs. In the past decades, spatial variation of the hydraulic properties of aquifers and soils has been shown to affect the transfer of solutes from soils to groundwater and from groundwater to surface water. More recently, regional and continental-scale hydrology have been required to quantify the role of the terrestrial hydrological cycle in relation to climate change. Both developments may pose new areas of application, or show the limits of applicability, of a law derived from a few experiments on a cylinder filled with sand in the 1850s.
Gary Sands, Srinivasulu Ale, Laura Christianson, and Nathan Utt
Agricultural (tile) drainage enables agricultural production on millions of hectares of arable lands worldwide. Lands where drainage or irrigation (and sometimes both) are implemented, generate a disproportionately large share of global agricultural production compared to dry land or rain-fed agricultural lands and thus, these water management tools are vital for meeting the food demands of today and the future. Future food demands will likely require irrigation and drainage to be practiced on an even greater share of the world’s agricultural lands. The practice of agricultural drainage finds its roots in ancient societies and has evolved greatly to incorporate modern technologies and materials, including the modern drainage plow, plastic drainage pipe and tubing, laser and GPS-guided installation equipment, and computer-aided design tools. Although drainage brings important agricultural production and environmental benefits to poorly drained and salt-affected arable lands, it can also give rise to the transport of nutrients and other constituents to downstream waters. Other unwanted ecological and hydrologic environmental effects may also be associated with the practice. The goal of this article is to familiarize the reader with the practice of subsurface agricultural drainage, the history and extent of its application, and the benefits commonly associated with it. In addition, environmental effects associated with subsurface drainage including hydrologic and water quality effects are presented, and conservation practices for mitigating these unwanted effects are described. These conservation practices are categorized by whether they are implemented in-field (such as controlled drainage) versus edge-of-field (such as bioreactors). The literature cited and reviewed herein is not meant to be exhaustive, but seminal and key literary works are identified where possible.
Luis S. Pereira and José M. Gonçalves
Surface irrigation is the oldest and most widely used irrigation method, more than 83% of the world’s irrigated area. It comprises traditional systems, developed over millennia, and modern systems with mechanized and often automated water application and adopting precise land-leveling. It adapts well to non-sloping conditions, low to medium soil infiltration characteristics, most crops, and crop mechanization as well as environmental conditions. Modern methods provide for water and energy saving, control of environmental impacts, labor saving, and cropping economic success, thus for competing with pressurized irrigation methods. Surface irrigation refers to a variety of gravity application of the irrigation water, which infiltrates into the soil while flowing over the field surface. The ways and timings of how water flows over the field and infiltrates the soil determine the irrigation phases—advance, maintenance or ponding, depletion, and recession—which vary with the irrigation method, namely paddy basin, leveled basin, border and furrow irrigation, generally used for field crops, and wild flooding and water spreading from contour ditches, used for pasture lands. System performance is commonly assessed using the distribution uniformity indicator, while management performance is assessed with the application efficiency or the beneficial water use fraction. The factors influencing system performance are multiple and interacting—inflow rate, field length and shape, soil hydraulics roughness, field slope, soil infiltration rate, and cutoff time—while management performance, in addition to these factors, depends upon the soil water deficit at time of irrigation, thus on the way farmers are able to manage irrigation. The process of surface irrigation is complex to describe because it combines surface flow with infiltration into the soil profile. Numerous mathematical computer models have therefore been developed for its simulation, aimed at both design adopting a target performance and field evaluation of actual performance. The use of models in design allows taking into consideration the factors referred to before and, when adopting any type of decision support system or multicriteria analysis, also taking into consideration economic and environmental constraints and issues.
There are various aspects favoring and limiting the adoption of surface irrigation. Favorable aspects include the simplicity of its adoption at farm in flat lands with low infiltration rates, namely when water conveyance and distribution are performed with canal and/or low-pressure pipe systems, low capital investment, and low energy consumption. Most significant limitations include high soil infiltration and high variability of infiltration throughout the field, land leveling requirements, need for control of a constant inflow rate, difficulties in matching irrigation time duration with soil water deficit at time of irrigation, and difficult access to equipment for mechanized and automated water application and distribution. The modernization of surface irrigation systems and design models, as well as models and tools usable to support surface irrigation management, have significantly impacted water use and productivity, and thus competitiveness of surface irrigation.
Coffee is an extremely important agricultural commodity, produced in about 80 tropical countries, with an estimated 125 million people depending on it for their livelihoods in Latin America, Africa, and Asia, with an annual production of about nine million tons of green beans. Consisting of at least 125 species, the genus Coffea L. (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae, Coffeeae) is distributed in Africa, Madagascar, the Comoros Islands, the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion and Mauritius), tropical Asia, and Australia. Two species are economically important for the production of the beverage coffee, C. arabica L. (Arabica coffee) and C. canephora A. Froehner (robusta coffee). Higher beverage quality is associated with C. arabica. Coffea arabica is a self-fertile tetraploid, which has resulted in very low genetic diversity of this significant crop. Coffee genetic resources are being lost at a rapid pace due to varied threats, such as human population pressures, leading to conversion of land to agriculture, deforestation, and land degradation; low coffee prices, leading to abandoning of coffee trees in forests and gardens and shifting of cultivation to other more remunerative crops; and climate change, leading to increased incidence of pests and diseases, higher incidence of drought, and unpredictable rainfall patterns. All these factors threaten livelihoods in many coffee-growing countries.
The economics of coffee production has changed in recent years, with prices on the international market declining and the cost of inputs increasing. At the same time, the demand for specialty coffee is at an all-time high. In order to make coffee production sustainable, attention should be paid to improving the quality of coffee by engaging in sustainable, environmentally friendly cultivation practices, which ultimately can claim higher net returns.
The world’s forest cover is approximately 4 billion hectares (10 billion acres). Of this total, approximately one-half is temperate forests. These range from the subtropics to roughly 65 degrees in latitude. As we move toward the equator, the forests would generally be considered tropical or subtropical, while forest above the 65th latitude might be considered boreal. Only a relatively small fraction of the forests that are temperate are managed in any significant manner. The major types of management can vary from serious forest protection to selective harvesting, with considerations for regeneration. Intensive forestry exists in the form of plantation forestry and is similar to agricultural cropping. Seedlings are planted, and the trees are managed in various ways while growing (e.g. fertilizers, herbicides, thinnings) and then harvested at a mature age. Typically, the cycle of planting and management then begins anew.
Approximately 200 million hectares of forests are managed beyond simply minimal protection and natural regeneration. Recent estimates suggest that over 100 million hectares globally are intensively managed planted forests. The largest representatives of these forests are found in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., the United States), China, and various countries of Europe, especially the Nordic countries. However, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, and Australia are important producers while being in the Southern Hemisphere. A high percentage of managed forests are designed to produce industrial wood for construction and for pulp and paper production.
Finally, in some countries like China, planted forests are intended to replace forests destroyed decades and even centuries ago. Many of these planted forests are intended to provide environmental services, including water capture and control, erosion control and soil protection, flood control, and habitat for wild life. Recently, forests are being considered as a vehicle to help control global warming. In addition, afforestation and/or reforestation may help address damages after a disturbance such as a fire. In China, the “green wall” has been established to prevent shoreline erosion in major coastal areas.
Paolo Socci, Alessandro Errico, Giulio Castelli, Daniele Penna, and Federico Preti
Agricultural terraces are widely spread all over the world and are among the most evident landscape signatures of the human fingerprint, in many cases dating back to several centuries. Agricultural terraces create complex anthropogenic landscapes traditionally built to obtain land for cultivation in steep terrains, typically prone to runoff production and soil erosion, and thus hardly suitable for rain-fed farming practices. In addition to acquiring new land for cultivation, terracing can provide a wide array of ecosystem services, including runoff reduction, water conservation, erosion control, soil conservation and increase of soil quality, carbon sequestration, enhancement of biodiversity, enhancement of soil fertility and land productivity, increase of crop yield and food security, development of aesthetic landscapes and recreational options. Moreover, some terraced areas in the world can be considered as a cultural and historical heritage that increases the asset of the local landscape. Terraced slopes may be prone to failure and degradation issues, such as localized erosion, wall or riser collapse, piping, and landsliding, mainly related to runoff concentration processes. Degradation phenomena, which are exacerbated by progressive land abandonment, reduce the efficiency of benefits provided by terraces. Therefore, understanding the physical processes occurring in terraced slopes is essential to find the most effective maintenance criteria necessary to accurately and adequately preserve agricultural terraces worldwide.
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article.
A qanat, a kind of subterranean and subhorizontal tunnel, is usually excavated in soft sediments and conducts groundwater to the surface at its emerging point. In addition to the tunnel, each qanat contains several to hundreds of vertical wells for removal of dig materials and ventilation of the tunnel. The depth of these wells increases towards the last one, which is the mother well. According to the literature, the qanat was invented around 800 to 1,000 years
Andrew B. Smith
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article.
The study of the origins and development of traditional food producing societies in Africa requires a close look at the source of wild progenitors and influences upon aboriginal hunting societies. These influences shaped the direction of adaptive strategies, producing grain agriculturalists, forest agriculturalists, and pastoralists across the different biomes of the continent. How, and if, hunters became pastoralist is still a topic widely discussed in East and southern Africa. Are African cattle an indigenous domesticate?
While African agricultural societies have been well-studied by anthropologists, the origins of their domesticates is much more difficult to ascertain than in pastoralist societies, due to the difficulty of finding food crops in the archaeological record, compared with the bones of domesticated animals, particularly in the tropical environments where organic remains disappear very quickly.
Pastoral societies in Africa, however, were a major driving force for later grain production. Wild grasses were harvested by transhumant nomads, and only with shifting climatic conditions that led to increased sedentarization were farming societies developed around the domestication of indigenous grains, such as sorghum and pearl millet.
In the tropical regions of Africa domestication of a number of indigenous plants, such as yams, oil palm, African rice, and others took place. These are unique to Africa, but the process of control and domestication is poorly understood. This is compounded by the introduction of alien domesticates, such as maize, manioc, and bananas, which have become widespread across the biome. On the other hand, African domesticates, like sorghum, migrated to the Indian subcontinent and constitute a major food resource there. The changing food requirements across the developed world are looking at the Ethiopian grain teff, which is gluten-free and nutrient rich, and without the Ethiopian coffee plant Starbucks would not exist.
Stephan Pauleit, Rieke Hansen, Emily Lorance Rall, Teresa Zölch, Erik Andersson, Ana Catarina Luz, Luca Szaraz, Ivan Tosics, and Kati Vierikko
Urban green infrastructure (GI) has been promoted as an approach to respond to major urban environmental and social challenges such as reducing the ecological footprint, improving human health and well-being, and adapting to climate change. Various definitions of GI have been proposed since its emergence more than two decades ago. This article aims to provide an overview of the concept of GI as a strategic planning approach that is based on certain principles.
A variety of green space types exist in urban areas, including remnants of natural areas, farmland on the fringe, designed green spaces, and derelict land where successional vegetation has established itself. These green spaces, and especially components such as trees, can cover significant proportions of urban areas. However, their uneven distribution raises issues of social and environmental justice. Moreover, the diverse range of public, institutional, and private landowners of urban green spaces poses particular challenges to GI planning. Urban GI planning must consider processes of urban change, especially pressures on green spaces from urban sprawl and infill development, while derelict land may offer opportunities for creating new, biodiverse green spaces within densely built areas.
Based on ample evidence from the research literature, it is suggested that urban GI planning can make a major contribution to conserving and enhancing biodiversity, improving environmental quality and reducing the ecological footprint, adapting cities to climate change, and promoting social cohesion. In addition, GI planning may support the shift toward a green economy.
The benefits derived from urban green spaces via the provision of ecosystem services are key to meeting these challenges. The text argues that urban GI planning should build on seven principles to unlock its full potential. Four of these are treated in more detail: green-gray integration, multifunctionality, connectivity, and socially inclusive planning. Considering these principles in concert is what makes GI planning a distinct planning approach. Results from a major European research project indicate that the principles of urban GI planning have been applied to different degrees. In particular, green-gray integration and approaches to socially inclusive planning offer scope for further improvement
In conclusion, urban GI is considered to hold much potential for the transition toward more sustainable and resilient pathways of urban development. While the approach has developed in the context of the Western world, its application to the rapidly developing cities of the Global South should be a priority.
The economics literature has developed various methods to recover the values for environmental commodities. Two such methods related to revealed preference are property value hedonic models and equilibrium sorting models. These strategies employ the actual decisions that households make in the real estate market to indirectly measure household demand for environmental quality. The hedonic method decomposes the equilibrium price of a house based on the house’s structural and neighborhood/environmental characteristics to recover marginal willingness to pay (MWTP). The more recent equilibrium sorting literature estimates environmental values by combining equilibrium housing outcomes with a formal model of the residential choice process. The two predominant frameworks of empirical sorting models that have been adopted in the literature are the vertical pure characteristics model (PCM) and the random utility model (RUM). Along with assumptions on the structure of preferences, a formal model of the choice process on the demand side, and a characterization of the supply side to close the model, these sorting models can predict outcomes that allow for re-equilibration of prices and endogenous attributes following a counterfactual policy change.
Innovations to the hedonic model have enabled researchers to more aptly value environmental goods in the face of complications such as non-marginal changes (i.e., identification and endogeneity concerns with respect to recovering the entire demand curve), non-stable hedonic equilibria, and household dynamic behavior. Recent advancements in the sorting literature have also allowed these models to accommodate consumer dynamic behavior, labor markets considerations, and imperfect information. These established methods to estimate demand for environmental quality are a crucial input into environmental policymaking. A better understanding of these models, their assumptions, and the potential implications on benefit estimates due to their assumptions would allow regulators to have more confidence in applying these models’ estimates in welfare calculations.
Edward B. Barbier
Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there has been strong interest globally in restoring mangrove ecosystems and their potential benefits from protecting coastlines and people from damaging storms. However, the net economic gains from mangrove restoration have been variable; there have been some notable project successes but also some prominent failures. There is also an ongoing debate over whether or not the cost of mangrove restoration is justified by the benefits these ecosystems provide. Although the high costs of mangrove restoration and the risk of failure have led to criticism of such schemes, perhaps the more pertinent concern should be whether the ex post option of restoration is economically beneficial compared to preventing irreversible mangrove conversion to alternative land uses. Case studies on mangrove valuation from Brazil and Thailand illustrate the key issues underlying this concern. Since much recent mangrove restoration has been motivated by the trees’ potential storm-protection benefit, a number of studies have valued mangroves for this purpose. However, mangroves are also valued for other important benefits, such as providing collected products for local coastal communities and serving as nursery and breeding grounds for off-shore fisheries. The implications of these benefits for mangrove restoration can be significant. It is also important to understand the appropriate use of benefit transfer when it is difficult to value restored mangroves, methods to incorporate the potential risk of mangrove restoration failure, and assessment of cost-effective mangrove restoration.
Ashley Barfield and Craig E. Landry
The result of interactive dynamics of the ocean, landforms, and weather patterns, sandy beaches and dunes are a natural feature along many coastlines around the world. Their contributions to overall social welfare are multifaceted and complex. Providing water access, recreation and tourism potential, scenic beauty, and leisure amenities, sandy coastlines have witnessed extensive commercial and residential development. Intact beach–dune systems provide coastal development projects with protection from storms, erosion, flooding, and (to some extent) sea-level rise. While yielding value through capital investment, market expansion, and the enhancement of access to natural amenities, increases in buildings and infrastructure can upset the delicate dynamic equilibrium in coastal systems. This, in turn, puts beaches, dunes, wetlands, wildlife habitats, and other ecological resources at risk. Concerns about these impacts have provided the impetus for several environmental management initiatives. Critical to these initiatives is information about the multidimensional economic and social values of coastal amenities, especially beaches and dunes.
The economic valuation of beach quality and coastal ecosystem services has traditionally focused on the implementation of non-market valuation techniques, including revealed (e.g., hedonic prices and travel costs) and stated preference (e.g., contingent valuation and choice experiment) approaches, in conjunction with survey/experimental design methods. Analysis of beach quality has become a vibrant topic, especially in response to concerns about the need for climate change adaptation; the impacts of sea-level rise; worsening and more frequent storm events; and changes in ocean temperature, salinity, and alkalinity. Each of these factors can ultimately impact beaches and coastal economies. As a result, the literature has broadened to include a number of interdisciplinary studies that feature the contributions of environmental economics, marine science, applied geology, natural resource management, risk and insurance, and urban planning disciplines, among others. These collaborations have advanced the science of coastal economics and management, but many significant challenges remain. Questions about the optimal order and timing of adaptation procedures, how to balance the provision of synergistic or conflicting goods and services, and how to design dynamic models that incorporate real-world management scenarios across different jurisdictions all require further investigation.
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article.
Massive population declines and species extinction have characterized the 20th and early 21st centuries. These local and global phenomena do not only involve the loss of particular species, habitats, and ecosystem services; they also result in a general reduction in biotic diversity. Ecological research has long indicated the importance of biodiversity within and across ecosystems. However, capturing the economic value of biodiversity remains a challenge.
Biodiversity is a multidimensional public good; it encompasses the diversity of genes, species, functional groups, habitats, and ecosystems. A large empirical literature in biology and ecology indicates that biodiversity has a stabilizing effect on ecosystems—the higher the biodiversity within a given ecosystem type, the more stable and resilient (well-functioning) is the ecosystem. However, the economic importance of biodiversity goes beyond this stabilizing effect.
The multidimensionality and complexity of the biodiversity concept has led to a multitude of approaches to its economic valuation. While the theoretical and conceptual literature has focused on biodiversity as insurance and pool of options, empirical studies have been much more diverse. Given the public-good nature and complexity of biodiversity, stated preference methods are particularly common. The focus on biodiversity valuation has fostered many important theoretical and methodological developments. Many estimates exist of the willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation in different countries across the world; however, relatively few studies have been conducted in developing countries, despite the considerably higher biodiversity levels there as compared with the better-covered developed countries.
Valuation of biodiversity is a controversial subject and the economic, predominantly anthropocentric approach has been criticized frequently. However, non-anthropocentric accounts of biodiversity value are problematic for their own reasons; an important question is whether biodiversity has intrinsic value and, if yes, whether this can be captured within the economic perspective. Valuation of biodiversity remains a vibrant topic at the intersections of disciplines such as ecology, environmental ethics, and economics.
Achilleas Vassilopoulos and Phoebe Koundouri
Water accounts for more than 70% of Earth’s surface, making marine ecosystems the largest and most important ecosystems of the planet. However, the fact that a large part of these ecosystems and their potential contribution to humans remains unexplored has rendered them unattractive for valuation exercises. On the contrary, coastal zones, , being the interface between the land, the sea, and human activities competing for space and resources, have been extensively studied with the objective of marine ecosystem services valuation. Examples of marine and coastal ecosystems are open oceans, coral reefs, deep seas, hydrothermal vents, abyssal plains, wetlands, rocky and sandy shores, mangroves, kelp forests, estuaries, salt marshes, and mudflats. Although there are arguments that no classification can capture the ways in which ecosystems contribute to human well-being and support human life, very often policymakers have to decide upon alternative uses of such natural environments. Should a given wetland be preserved or converted to agricultural land? Should a mangrove be designated within the protected areas system or be used for shrimp farming? To answer these questions, one needs first to establish the philosophical basis of value within the ecosystems framework. To this end, two vastly different approaches have been proposed. On the one hand, the nonutilitarian (biocentric) approach relies on the notion of intrinsic value attached to the mere existence of a natural resource, independent of whether humans derive utility from its use (if any) or preservation. Albeit useful in philosophical terms, this approach is still far from providing unambiguous and generally accepted inputs to the tangible problem of ecosystem valuation. The utilitarian (anthropocentric) perspective, on the other hand, assumes that natural environments have value to the extent that humans derive utility from placing such value. According to the total economic value (TEV) approach, this value can be divided into “use” and “nonuse.” Use values involve some interaction with the resource, either directly or indirectly, while nonuse values are derived simply from the knowledge that natural resources and aspects of the natural environment are maintained. Existence and altruistic values fall within this latter category.
Not surprisingly, economists have long revealed a strong preference for the utilitarian approach. As a result, the valuation of marine ecosystems requires that we understand the ecosystem services they deliver and then attach a value to the services. But what tools are available to economists when valuing marine ecosystems? For the most part, ecosystem services are not traded in formal markets and thus actual prices are usually not available. Valuation techniques essentially seek different ways to estimate measures like Willingness To Pay (WTP), Willingness To Accept (WTA), or expenditures and costs. The techniques used for the valuation of ecosystem services can be divided into three main families: market-based, revealed preference, and stated preference. Finally, value-transfer methods are also used when estimates of value are available in similar contexts. All these methods have advantages and disadvantages, with different methods being suitable for different situations. Hence, extra caution is required during the design and implementation of valuation attempts.
Different ecosystem values of the Amazon rainforest are surveyed in economic terms. Spatial rainforest valuation is crucial for good forest management, such as where to put the most effort to stop illegal logging and forest fires, and which areas to designate as new nationally protected areas. Three classes of economic value are identified, according to who does the valuation: values accruing to the local and regional populations (of South America); carbon values (which are global); and other global (noncarbon) values. Only the first two classes are discussed. Three types of value are separated according to ecosystem service delivered from the rainforest: provisioning services; supporting and regulating services; and cultural and other human services. Net values of provisioning services, including reduced impact logging and various non-timber forest products, are well documented for the entire Brazilian Amazon at a spatially detailed scale and amount to at least $20–50/ha/year. Less-detailed information exists about values of fish, game, and bioprospecting from the Amazon, although their total values can be shown to be sizable. Many supporting and regulating services are harder to value economically, in particular climate regulation and watershed and erosion protection. Impacts of changed rainfall when Amazon rainforest is lost have been valued at detailed scale, but with relative model values of $10–20/ha/year. Carbon values are much larger, at a carbon price of $30/ton CO2, around $14,000/ha as capitalized value. The average per-hectare value of tourism and the health benefits from having the Amazon forest are low, and such values cannot easily be pinned down to individual areas of the Amazon. Finally, the biodiversity values of the Amazon, as accruing to the local and regional population, seem to be small based on recent stated-preference work in Brazil. Most of the values related to biodiversity are likely to be global and may. in principle, be very large, but the global components are not valued here. The concept of value is discussed, and a marginal valuation concept (practically useful for policy) is favored as opposed to an average or total valuation. Marginal value can be below average value (as is likely for biodiversity and tourism), but can also in some contexts be higher. This can occur where losing forest at a local scale increases the prevalence of forest fires and where it increases forest dryness, leading to a multiplier process whereby more forest is lost. While strides have recently been made to improve rainforest valuation at both micro- and macroscales, much work still remains.