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Addressing Climate Change Through Education  

Tamara Shapiro Ledley, Juliette Rooney-Varga, and Frank Niepold

The scientific community has made the urgent need to mitigate climate change clear and, with the ratification of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on ... More

Aerosols and Their Impact on Radiation, Clouds, Precipitation, and Severe Weather Events  

Zhanqing Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Jiwen Fan

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Aerosols (tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere) have been in the forefront of environmental and climate change sciences as the primary atmospheric pollutant and ... More

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe  

Aurélie Salavert

Along with ceramics production, sedentism, and herding, agriculture is a major component of the Neolithic as it is defined in Europe. Therefore, the agricultural system of the first ... More

Agricultural Innovation and Dispersal in Eastern North America  

Kandace D. Hollenbach and Stephen B. Carmody

Published Online:
Feb 2019
The possibility that native peoples in eastern North America had cultivated plants prior to the introduction of maize was first raised in 1924. Scant evidence was available to support this ... More

Agricultural Methanogenesis  

Alexander N. Hristov

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Agriculture is a significant source of methane, contributing about 12% of the global anthropogenic methane emissions. Major sources of methane from agricultural activities are fermentation ... More

Agricultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution in Surface Waters  

Marianne Bechmann and Per Stålnacke

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Nutrient pollution can have a negative impact on the aquatic environment, with loss of biodiversity, toxic algal blooms, and a deficiency in dissolved oxygen in surface waters. ... More

Agricultural Origins and their Consequences in Southwestern Asia  

Alan Simmons

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico  

Deborah L. Nichols

Published Online:
Feb 2018
The Basin of Mexico is a key world region for understanding agricultural intensification and the development of ancient and historic cities and states. Archaeologists working in the region ... More

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment  

Heather Williams

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and ... More

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant  

John M. Marston

Published Online:
Jun 2017
The ancient Near East was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in the world, giving rise to domesticated herd animals, cereals, and legumes that today have become primary ... More

The Agriculture of Early India  

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

Published Online:
Oct 2017
South Asia possesses a unique Neolithic transition to agricultural domestication. India has received far less attention in the quest for evidence of early agriculture than other regions of ... More

Agroecology  

Juha Helenius, Alexander Wezel, and Charles A. Francis

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Agroecology can be defined as scientific research on ecological sustainability of food systems. In addressing food production and consumption systems in their entirety, the focus ... More

Air Pollution and Weather Interaction in East Asia  

Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, and Congbin Fu

Air pollution is one of the grand environmental challenges in developing countries, especially those with high population density like China. High concentrations of primary and secondary ... More

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture in South America: Highlands  

Geoffrey L. Taylor and Katherine L. Chiou

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

An Image Reconnaissance: Agricultural Patterns and Related Environmental Impacts Viewed From Space  

Richard W. Hazlett and Joshua Peck

Published Online:
Aug 2018
Satellite reconnaissance of the Earth’s surface provides critical information about the state of human interaction with the natural environment. The strongest impact is agricultural, ... More

The Anthropocene  

Jan Zalasiewicz and Colin Waters

Published Online:
Dec 2015
The Anthropocene hypothesis—that humans have impacted “the environment” but also changed the Earth’s geology—has spread widely through the sciences and humanities. This hypothesis is being ... More

Arid Environments  

Julie Laity

Arid environments cover about one third of the Earth’s surface, comprising the most extensive of the terrestrial biomes. Deserts show considerable individual variation in climate, ... More

Asset Based Approaches for Community Engagement  

Katrina Wyatt, Robin Durie, and Felicity Thomas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Atmospheric Brown Clouds  

Sumit Sharma, Liliana Nunez, and Veerabhadran Ramanathan

Atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) are widespread pollution clouds that can at times span an entire continent or an ocean basin. ABCs extend vertically from the ground upward to as high as 3 ... More

Barley in Archaeology and Early History  

Simone Riehl

Published Online:
Mar 2019
In 2018 barley accounts for only 5% of the cereal production worldwide, and regionally for up to 40% of cereal production. The cereal represents the oldest crop species and is one of the ... More

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