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Article

Decision-Making in a Water Crisis: Lessons From the Cape Town Drought for Urban Water Policy  

Johanna Brühl, Leonard le Roux, Martine Visser, and Gunnar Köhlin

The water crisis that gripped Cape Town over the 2016–2018 period gained global attention. For a brief period of time in early 2018, it looked as if the legislative capital of South Africa would become the first major city in the world to run out of water. The case of Cape Town has broad implications for how we think about water management in a rapidly urbanizing world. Cities in the global South, especially, where often under-capacitated urban utilities need to cope with rapid demographic changes, climate change, and numerous competing demands on their tight budgets, can learn from Cape Town’s experience. The case of Cape Town draws attention to the types of decisions policymakers and water utilities face in times of crisis. It illustrates how these decisions, while being unavoidable in the short term, are often sub-optimal in the long run. The Cape Town drought highlights the importance of infrastructure diversification, better groundwater management, and communication and information transparency to build trust with the public. It also shows what governance and institutional changes need to be made to ensure long-term water security and efficient water management. The implementation of all of these policies needs to address the increased variability of water supplies due to increasingly erratic rainfall and rapidly growing urban populations in many countries. This necessitates a long-term planning horizon.

Article

Stormwater Management and Roadways  

Nigel Pickering and Somayeh Nassiri

Nonpoint source pollution is common in highly developed areas worldwide, degrading downstream water quality conditions and causing algal growth, aquatic toxicity, and sometimes fish kills. Stormwater runoff that results from rainfall or snowmelt events creates high-flow runoff from impervious surfaces and adjacent areas transporting multiple pollutants to the receiving waters. Although water quality regulations in the developed world have been effective in cleaning up wastewater discharges, their success with remediating stormwater discharges has not been consistent. An exploration of the sources, characteristics, and treatment of roadway runoff, a type of runoff that can be toxic and more difficult to manage because of the linear nature of the road network, is necessary. Since 1975, there have been more than 50 major roadway studies quantifying the sources and types of runoff contaminants like sediment, metals, inorganic salts, and organic compounds. Vehicle sources of pollutants are considered the most pernicious of all roadway contaminants, with brakes and tires being major sources. In the last decade, the leachate from tire wear particles has been linked to toxicity in coho salmon. Nonstructural stormwater management minimizes contamination by using source controls; for example, the elimination of almost all lead in automotive fuel has reduced roadway lead contamination significantly and the introduction of low-copper brake pads in the United States is expected to reduce roadway copper contamination over time. Structural stormwater management practices treat contaminated roadway runoff using small natural treatment systems; this is due in large part to the linear nature of roadways that makes larger regional systems more difficult. Since 2000, treatment performance has improved; however, there is still a great need for further improvement. Suggestions for treatment improvements include designing with low maintenance in mind; applying machine learning to the existing data; improving the understanding of road-land pollutant dynamics; using a transdisciplinary applied research approach to identify the means to improve treatment and reduce toxicity; improving the media used in treatment systems to enhance performance; improving structural strength of permeable pavement; and increasing implementation by facilitating ways to allow/encourage small, effective, and less costly alternatives.

Article

Sustainable Management of Groundwater  

Stephen Foster and John Chilton

This chapter first provides a concise account of the basic principles and concepts underlying scientific groundwater management, and it then both summarises the policy approach to developing an adaptive scheme of management and protection for groundwater resources that is appropriately integrated across relevant sectors and assesses the governance needs, roles and planning requirements to implement the selected policy approach.

Article

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia  

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The domestication of livestock animals has long been recognized as one of the most important and influential events in human prehistory and has been the subject of scholarly inquiry for centuries. Modern understandings of this important transition place it within the context of the origins of food production in the so-called Neolithic Revolution, where it is particularly well documented in southwest Asia. Here, a combination of archaeofaunal, isotopic, and DNA evidence suggests that sheep, goat, cattle, and pigs were first domesticated over a period of several millennia within sedentary communities practicing intensive cultivation beginning at the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. Resulting from more than a century of data collection, our understanding of the chronological and geographic features of the transition from hunting to herding indicate that the 9th millennium bce and the region of the northern Levant played crucial roles in livestock domestication. However, many questions remain concerning the nature of the earliest predomestic animal management strategies, the role of multiple regional traditions of animal management in the emergence of livestock, and the motivations behind the slow spread of integrated livestock husbandry systems, including all four domestic livestock species that become widespread throughout southwest Asia only at the end of the Neolithic period.

Article

Economics of Waste Minimization, Recycling, and Disposal  

Rawshan Ara Begum and Sofia Ehsan

With rapid population growth and urbanization around the world, waste generation (solid, liquid, and gaseous) is increasing. Waste management is a critical factor in ensuring human health and environmental protection, which is a major concern of both developing and developed countries. Waste management systems and practices, including collection, transport, treatment, and disposal, vary between developed and developing countries or even in urban and rural areas. In response, economic models have been developed to help decision-makers choose the most efficient mix of policy levers to regulate solid waste and recycling activities. The economic models employ different kinds of data to estimate the factors that contribute to solid waste generation and recycling, and to estimate the effectiveness of the policy options employed for waste management and disposal. Thus, economic analysis plays a crucial role in the proper and efficient management of solid waste, and leads to significant developments in the field of environmental economics to reflect the costs of pollution related to waste, measure the environmental benefits of waste management, find cost-efficient solutions, and shape policies for environmental protection and sustainable development. Economic assessment and cost-benefit analysis help to determine optimal policies for efficient use of resources and management of waste problems to achieve sustainable waste management, especially in developing and least developed countries. Crucial challenges include issues such as the limits of waste hierarchy, integration of sustainable waste management, public-private cooperation, and linear versus circular economy.

Article

Environmental Accounting and the Management Challenge  

Roger L. Burritt, Stefan Schaltegger, and Katherine L. Christ

There is a need to achieve sustainability through development of economies and companies that operate in the safe operating space of planetary boundaries and contribute to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This requires that decision makers are informed about the state of the natural environment, the environmental impacts being caused, and the effectiveness of improvement measures. Environmental accounting focuses on such environmental issues. It informs decision makers about combined environmental and economic matters and supports improvement processes. Environmental accounts at the national and regional macro level are mostly focused on the environmental condition and changes in condition over time. In contrast, company environmental accounting at the micro level either focuses on reporting on the overall impact in the past, providing detailed internal information for managers to address key problem areas, or identifying aspects for improvement. Transdisciplinary research helps to address the economic and management challenge of linking company-related micro level accounts and activities with macro level environmental objectives.

Article

Soil Salinization  

Pichu Rengasamy

Salt accumulation in soils, affecting agricultural productivity, environmental health, and the economy of the community, is a global phenomenon since the decline of ancient Mesopotamian civilization by salinity. The global distribution of salt-affected soils is estimated to be around 830 million hectares extending over all the continents, including Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas. The concentration and composition of salts depend on several resources and processes of salt accumulation in soil layers. Major types of soil salinization include groundwater associated salinity, non–groundwater-associated salinity, and irrigation-induced salinity. There are several soil processes which lead to salt build-up in the root zone interfering with the growth and physiological functions of plants. Salts, depending on the ionic composition and concentration, can also affect many soil processes, such as soil water dynamics, soil structural stability, solubility of essential nutrients, and pH and pE of soil water—all indirectly hindering plant growth. The direct effect of salinity includes the osmotic effect affecting water and nutrient uptake and the toxicity or deficiency due to high concentration of certain ions. The plan of action to resolve the problems associated with soil salinization should focus on prevention of salt accumulation, removal of accumulated salts, and adaptation to a saline environment. Successful utilization of salinized soils needs appropriate soil and irrigation management and improvement of plants by breeding and genetic engineering techniques to tolerate different levels of salinity and associated abiotic stress.

Article

Integrated Water Resource Management as an Organizing Concept  

Mohamed Ait-Kadi and Melvyn Kay

This is an immersive journey through different water management concepts. The conceptual attractiveness of concepts is not enough; they must be applicable in the real and fast-changing world. Thus, beyond the concepts, our long-standing challenge remains increasing water security. This is about stewardship of water resources for the greatest good of societies and the environment. It is a public responsibility requiring dynamic, adaptable, participatory, and balanced planning. It is all about coordination and sharing. Multi-sectoral approaches are needed to adequately address the threats and opportunities relating to water resources management in the context of climate change, rapid urbanization, and growing disparities. The processes involved are many and need consistency and long-term commitment to succeed. Climate change is closely related to the problems of water security, food security, energy security and environment sustainability. These interconnections are often ignored when policy-makers devise partial responses to individual problems. They call for broader public policy planning tools with the capacity to encourage legitimate public/collective clarification of the trade-offs and the assessment of the potential of multiple uses of water to facilitate development and growth. We need to avoid mental silos and to overcome the current piecemeal approach to solving the water problems. This requires a major shift in practice for organizations (governmental as well as donor organizations) accustomed to segregating water problems by subsectors. Our experience with integration tells us that (1) we need to invest in understanding the political economy of different sectors; (2) we need new institutional arrangements that function within increasing complexity, cutting across sectoral silos and sovereign boundaries; (3) top down approaches for resources management will not succeed without bottom-up efforts to help people improve their livelihoods and their capacity to adapt to increasing resource scarcity as well as to reduce unsustainable modes of production. Political will, as well as political skill, need visionary and strong leadership to bring opposing interests into balance to inform policy- making with scientific understanding, and to negotiate decisions that are socially accepted. Managing water effectively across a vast set of concerns requires equally vast coordination. Strong partnerships and knowledge creation and sharing are essential. Human civilization – we know- is a response to challenge. Certainly, water scarcity can be a source of conflict among competing users, particularly when combined with other factors of political or cultural tension. But it can also be an inducement to cooperation even in high tension areas. We believe that human civilization can find itself the resources to respond successfully to the many water challenges, and in the process make water a learning ground for building the expanded sense of community and sharing necessary to an increasingly interconnected world.

Article

Temperate Forest Economics  

Roger Sedjo

The world’s forest cover is approximately 4 billion hectares (10 billion acres). Of this total, approximately one-half is temperate forests. These range from the subtropics to roughly 65 degrees in latitude. As we move toward the equator, the forests would generally be considered tropical or subtropical, while forest above the 65th latitude might be considered boreal. Only a relatively small fraction of the forests that are temperate are managed in any significant manner. The major types of management can vary from serious forest protection to selective harvesting, with considerations for regeneration. Intensive forestry exists in the form of plantation forestry and is similar to agricultural cropping. Seedlings are planted, and the trees are managed in various ways while growing (e.g. fertilizers, herbicides, thinnings) and then harvested at a mature age. Typically, the cycle of planting and management then begins anew. Approximately 200 million hectares of forests are managed beyond simply minimal protection and natural regeneration. Recent estimates suggest that over 100 million hectares globally are intensively managed planted forests. The largest representatives of these forests are found in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., the United States), China, and various countries of Europe, especially the Nordic countries. However, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, and Australia are important producers while being in the Southern Hemisphere. A high percentage of managed forests are designed to produce industrial wood for construction and for pulp and paper production. Finally, in some countries like China, planted forests are intended to replace forests destroyed decades and even centuries ago. Many of these planted forests are intended to provide environmental services, including water capture and control, erosion control and soil protection, flood control, and habitat for wild life. Recently, forests are being considered as a vehicle to help control global warming. In addition, afforestation and/or reforestation may help address damages after a disturbance such as a fire. In China, the “green wall” has been established to prevent shoreline erosion in major coastal areas.

Article

Hedging and Financial Tools for Water Management  

C. Dionisio Pérez-Blanco

The management of risky water episodes entails a comprehensive set of instruments that can be broadly divided into two groups: damage prevention and damage management. Damage prevention instruments aim at negating or minimizing the economic damage of water scarcity and water extremes, and they include hard and soft engineering, information and awareness campaigns, and regulations and economic incentives. Damage management instruments aim at compensating damages and facilitating recovery, and they include tort law and hedging and financial tools. The growing interconnections and cascading uncertainties across coupled human and water systems make it increasingly challenging to comprehensively predict and anticipate expected damages from water scarcity and extremes, which is giving higher prominence to the management of damages, notably through hedging and financial tools. Hedging and financial tools are a risk transfer mechanism by which a potential future damage is transferred from one party to another, typically in exchange of a pecuniary compensation (risk premium), albeit they can be also freely provided (e.g., state aid). Hedging and financial instruments are varied and include futures, options, insurance, self-capitalization, reinsurance, private actions such as charities or nongovernmental organizations, state aid, and solidarity funds. The first section of this document discusses the political context for disaster risk reduction efforts at an international level and provides key definitions. The second section presents a taxonomy for hedging and financial instruments; assesses their strengths and weaknesses, performance, and market penetration levels; and critically reviews reform propositions in the literature toward increasing their performance and adoption. The third section discusses the interconnections between hedging and financial tools and damage prevention tools, as well as how their design can enhance each other’s performance. The last section discusses barriers and enablers for the adoption of hedging and financial tools.

Article

Ecosystem Services into Water Resource Planning and Management  

Phoebe Koundouri, Angelos Alamanos, Kostas Dellis, Conrad Landis, and Artemis Stratopoulou

The broad economic notion of ecosystem services (ES) refers to the benefits that humans derive, directly or indirectly, from ecosystem functions. Provisioning ES refer to human-centered benefits that can be extracted from nature (e.g., food, drinking water, timber, wood fuel, natural gas, oils, etc.), whereas regulating ES include ecosystem processes that moderate natural phenomena (pollination, decomposition, flood control, carbon storage, climate regulation, etc.). Cultural ES entail nonmaterial benefits accruing to the cultural advancement of people, such as the role of ecosystems in national and supranational cultures, recreation, and the spur of knowledge and creativity (music, art, architecture). Finally, supporting ES refer to the main natural cycles that nature needs to function, such as photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, the creation of soils, and the water cycle. Most ES either depend on or provide freshwater services, so they are linked to water resources management (WRM). The concept of ES initially had a pedagogical purpose to raise awareness on the importance of reasonable WRM; later, however, it started being measured with economic methods, and having policy implications. The valuation of ES is an important methodology aimed at achieving environmental, economic and sustainability goals. The total economic value of ecosystems includes market values (priced) as well as nonmarket values (not explicit in any market) of different services for humanity’s benefit. The valuation of ES inherently reflects human preferences and perceptions regarding the contribution of ecosystems and their functions to the economy and society. The ES concept and associated policies have been criticized on the technical weaknesses of the valuation methods, interdisciplinary conflicts (e.g., ecological vs. economic perception of value), and ethical aspects on the limits of economics, nature’s commodification, and its policy implications. Since valuation affects the incentives and policies aimed at conserving key ES, e.g., through payment schemes, it is important to understand the way that humans decide and develop preferences under uncertainty. Behavioral economics attempts to understand human behavior and psychology and can help to identify appropriate institutions and policies under uncertainty that enhance ecosystem services that are key to WRM.

Article

Sea Level Rise and Coastal Management  

James B. London

Coastal zone management (CZM) has evolved since the enactment of the U.S. Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, which was the first comprehensive program of its type. The newer iteration of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), as applied to the European Union (2000, 2002), establishes priorities and a comprehensive strategy framework. While coastal management was established in large part to address issues of both development and resource protection in the coastal zone, conditions have changed. Accelerated rates of sea level rise (SLR) as well as continued rapid development along the coasts have increased vulnerability. The article examines changing conditions over time and the role of CZM and ICZM in addressing increased climate related vulnerabilities along the coast. The article argues that effective adaptation strategies will require a sound information base and an institutional framework that appropriately addresses the risk of development in the coastal zone. The information base has improved through recent advances in technology and geospatial data quality. Critical for decision-makers will be sound information to identify vulnerabilities, formulate options, and assess the viability of a set of adaptation alternatives. The institutional framework must include the political will to act decisively and send the right signals to encourage responsible development patterns. At the same time, as communities are likely to bear higher costs for adaptation, it is important that they are given appropriate tools to effectively weigh alternatives, including the cost avoidance associated with corrective action. Adaptation strategies must be pro-active and anticipatory. Failure to act strategically will be fiscally irresponsible.

Article

Institutional Fit in the Water Sector  

Cathy Rubiños and Maria Bernedo Del Carpio

Adequate water governance is necessary for the world’s sustainability. Because of its importance, a growing literature has studied ways to improve water governance, beginning in the early 2000s. Institutions, which refer to the set of shared rules, codes, and prescriptions that regulate human actions, are a particularly important element of sustainable water governance. Evidence shows that to design institutions that will generate sustainable economic, ecological, and cultural development, it is necessary to consider ecosystems and socioeconomic-cultural systems as social-ecological systems (SESs). In the past, practitioners and international agencies tried to find the government-led panaceas, but this search has been largely unsuccessful. Current views support efforts to move towards addressing complexity (e.g., Integrated Water Resources Management), and search for the fit between the institutional arrangements and SESs’ attributes. The literature on institutional fit in SESs encourages planners to design institutions by carefully considering the defining features of the problems they are meant to address and the SES context in which they are found. This literature has been developing since the 1990s and has identified different types of misfits. A comprehensive fitness typology that includes all the different types of fitness (ecological, social, SES, and intra-institutional fit) helps organize existing and future work on institutional fit and provides a checklist for governments to be used in the problem-solving process for increasing fitness. The water governance and institutional fitness literature provide examples of management practices and mechanisms for increasing institutional fit for each fitness type. Future research should focus on improving the methodologies to measure different types of fit and testing the effect of introducing fit on SES outcomes.

Article

Water User Associations and Collective Action in Irrigation and Drainage  

Bryan Bruns

If there is too little or too much water, farmers may be able to work together to control water and grow more food. Even before the rise of cities and states, people living in ancient settlements cooperated to create better growing conditions for useful plants and animals by diverting, retaining, or draining water. Local collective action by farmers continued to play a major role in managing water for agriculture, including in later times and places when rulers sometimes also organized construction of dams, dikes, and canals. Comparative research on long-lasting irrigation communities and local governance of natural resources has found immense diversity in management rules tailored to the variety of local conditions. Within this diversity, Elinor Ostrom identified shared principles of institutional design: clear social and physical boundaries; fit between rules and local conditions, including proportionality in sharing costs and benefits; user participation in modifying rules; monitoring by users or those accountable to them; graduated sanctions to enforce rules; low-cost conflict resolution; government tolerance or support for self-governance; and nested organizations. During the 19th and 20th centuries, centralized bureaucracies constructed many large irrigation schemes. Farmers were typically expected to handle local operation and maintenance and comply with centralized management. Postcolonial international development finance for irrigation and drainage systems usually flowed through national bureaucracies, strengthening top-down control of infrastructure and water management. Pilot projects in the 1970s in the Philippines and Sri Lanka inspired internationally funded efforts to promote participatory irrigation management in many countries. More ambitious reforms for transfer of irrigation management to water user associations (WUAs) drew on examples in Colombia, Mexico, Turkey, and elsewhere. These reforms have shown the feasibility in some cases of changing policies and practices to involve irrigators more closely in decisions about design, construction, and some aspects of operation and maintenance, including cooperation in scheme-level co-management. However, WUAs and associated institutional reforms are clearly not panaceas and have diverse results depending on context and on contingencies of implementation. Areas of mixed or limited impact and for potential improvement include performance in delivering water; maintaining infrastructure; mobilizing local resources; sustaining organizations after project interventions; and enhancing social inclusion and equity in terms of multiple uses of water, gender, age, ethnicity, poverty, land tenure, and other social differences. Cooperation in managing water for agriculture can contribute to coping with present and future challenges, including growing more food to meet rising demand; competition for water between agriculture, industry, cities, and the environment; increasing drought, flood, and temperatures due to climate change; social and economic shifts in rural areas, including outmigration and diversification of livelihoods; and the pursuit of environmental sustainability.

Article

Ecosystem Management of the Boreal Forest  

Timo Kuuluvainen

Boreal countries are rich in forest resources, and for their area, they produce a disproportionally large share of the lumber, pulp, and paper bound for the global market. These countries have long-standing strong traditions in forestry education and institutions, as well as in timber-oriented forest management. However, global change, together with evolving societal values and demands, are challenging traditional forest management approaches. In particular, plantation-type management, where wood is harvested with short cutting cycles relative to the natural time span of stand development, has been criticized. Such management practices create landscapes composed of mosaics of young, even-aged, and structurally homogeneous stands, with scarcity of old trees and deadwood. In contrast, natural forest landscapes are characterized by the presence of old large trees, uneven-aged stand structures, abundant deadwood, and high overall structural diversity. The differences between managed and unmanaged forests result from the fundamental differences in the disturbance regimes of managed versus unmanaged forests. Declines in managed forest biodiversity and structural complexity, combined with rapidly changing climatic conditions, pose a risk to forest health, and hence, to the long-term maintenance of biodiversity and provisioning of important ecosystem goods and services. The application of ecosystem management in boreal forestry calls for a transition from plantation-type forestry toward more diversified management inspired by natural forest structure and dynamics.

Article

Ecological Water Management in Cities  

Timothy Beatley

Managing water in cities presents a series of intersecting challenges. Rapid urbanization, wasteful consumption, minimal efforts at urban or ecological planning, and especially climate change have made management of urban water more difficult. Urban water management is multifaceted and interconnected: cities must at once address problems of too much water (i.e., more frequent and extreme weather events, increased riverine and coastal flooding, and rising sea levels), but also not enough water (e.g., drought and water scarcity), as well as the need to protect the quality of water and water bodies. This article presents a comprehensive and holistic picture of water planning challenges facing cities, and the historical approaches and newer methods embraced by cities with special attention to the need to consider the special effects of climate change on these multiple aspects of water and the role of ecological planning and design in responding to them. Ecological planning represents the best and most effective approach to urban water management, and ecological planning approaches hold the most promise for achieving the best overall outcomes in cities when taking into account multiple benefits (e.g., minimizing natural hazards, securing a sustainable water supply) as well as the need to protect and restore the natural environment. There are many opportunities to build on to the history of ecological planning, and ecological planning for water is growing in importance and momentum. Ecological planning for water provides the chance to profoundly rethink and readjust mankind’s relationship to water and provides the chance also to reimagine and reshape cities of the 21st century.

Article

Transboundary Water Governance and Small Basin Councils in Central Asia  

Stefanos Xenarios, Murat Yakubov, Aziza Baubekova, Olzhas Alshagirov, Zhassulan Zhalgas, and Eduardo Jr Araral

Central Asia (CA) hosts some of the world’s most complex and most extensive water management infrastructures allocated in the two major transboundary basins of the Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers. The upstream countries of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan mainly utilize the rivers for hydropower and irrigation, whereas the downstream countries of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan primarily use them for irrigation purposes. The governance of the two river basins has been contested since Soviet times, and more so after the independence of the CA countries. The scheme of Small Basin Councils (SBCs) has been introduced in the region from 2010 to 2022 to improve local and transboundary water governance at a sub-basin and catchment level. Implementing SBCs in CA is still in the experimental phase, and its contribution to river basin management is insufficiently explored. However, there are indications that SBCs play a significant role in raising awareness of and engagement with local communities and improving local and transboundary governance management and coordination. Most important, SBCs can help resolve critical issues in agricultural water allocation, one of the most contentious issues for transboundary water governance in CA. The basin councils could become significant leverage for improving water governance on national and transboundary systems in CA by actively engaging local communities in management, planning, and administration.

Article

Smart One Water: An Integrated Approach for the Next Generation of Sustainable and Resilient Water Systems  

Sunil K. Sinha, Meghna Babbar-Sebens, David Dzombak, Paolo Gardoni, Bevlee Watford, Glenda Scales, Neil Grigg, Edgar Westerhof, Kenneth Thompson, and Melissa Meeker

Quality of life for all people and communities is directly linked to the availability of clean and abundant water. Natural and built water systems are threatened by crumbling infrastructure, floods, drought, storms, wildfires, sea-level rise, population growth, cybersecurity breaches, and pollution, often in combination. Marginalized communities feel the worst impacts, and responses are hampered by fragmented and antiquated governance and management practices. A standing grand challenge for the water sector is transitioning society to a future where current silos are transformed into a significantly more efficient, effective, and equitable One Water system-of-systems paradigm—in other words, a future where communities are able to integrate the governance and management of natural and engineered water systems at all scales of decision-making in a river basin. Innovation in digital technologies that connect data, people, and organizations can be game changers in addressing this societal grand challenge. It is envisioned that advancing digital capabilities in the water sector will require a Smart One Water approach, one that builds upon new technologies and research advancements in multiple disciplines, including those in engineering, computer science, and social science. However, several fundamental knowledge gaps at the nexus of physical, social, and cyber sciences currently exist on how a nationwide Smart One Water approach can be created, operationalized, and maintained. Convergent research is needed to investigate these gaps and improve our current understanding of Smart One Water approaches, including the costs, risks, and benefits to diverse communities in the rural-to-urban continuum. At its core, implementing the Smart One Water approach requires a science-based, stakeholder-driven, and artificial intelligence (AI)–enabled cyberinfrastructure platform, one that can provide a robust framework to support networks of river-basin collaborations. We refer to this envisioned cyberinfrastructure foundation as the digital research and operational platform (DROP). DROP is envisioned to exploit advances in data analytics, machine learning, information, communication, and decision support technologies for the management of One Water systems via AI-enabled digital twins of river-basin systems. Deploying DROP at a large-basin scale requires an understanding of (a) physical water systems (natural and engineered) at the basin scale, which interact with each other in a dynamic environment affected by climate change and other societal trends and whose data, functions, and processes must be integrated to create digital twins of river basins; (b) the social aspects of One Water systems by understanding the values and perspectives of stakeholders, costs and benefits of water management practices and decisions, and the specific needs of disadvantaged populations in river basin communities; (c) approaches for developing and deploying the digital technologies, analytics, and AI required to efficiently operate and manage Smart One Water systems in small to large communities; (d) strategies for training and advancing the next-generation workforce who have expertise on cyber, physical, and social aspects of One Water systems; and (e) lessons learned from testing and evaluating DROP in diverse testbeds. The article describes a strategic plan for operationalizing Smart One Water management and governance in the United States. The plan is based on five foundational pillars: (a) river-basin scale governance, (b) workforce development, (c) innovation ecosystem, (d) diversity and inclusion, and (e) stakeholder engagement. Workshops were conducted for each foundational pillar among diverse stakeholders representing federal, state, and local governments; utilities; industry; nongovernmental organizations; academics; and the general public. The workshops confirmed the strong desire of water communities to embrace, integrate, and grow the Smart One Water approach. Recommendations were generated for using the foundational pillars to guide strategic plans to implement a national-scale Smart One Water program and facilitate its adoption by communities in the United States, with global applications to follow.

Article

Hydroeconomics  

Manuel Pulido-Velazquez and Amaury Tilmant

The management of water resources systems involves influencing and improving the interaction among three subsystems: natural (biophysical), economic, and legal-institutional frameworks. In this sense, hydroeconomic models have the advantage of analyzing water management problems through models that explicitly represent these interactions. The combination of economic, engineering, and environmental aspects of management provides better-informed results for decision making in the complex environment in which water management operates. Hydroeconomic models (HEMs) are spatially distributed management models of a river basin or system in which both water supply and demands are economically and hydrologically characterized. This definition is sometimes relaxed to refer in general to water resources management models that include the economic component. In HEMs, the management and allocation of water is either driven by the economic value of water or economically assessed, which contributes to policy analysis and reveals opportunities for better economic management. The traditional view of water demand as a fixed requirement to be satisfied is modified by a view of demand that adapts to the changes in the scarcity of water. The integration of economics in HEMs allows the identification of the best combination of water supply and demand management options within a consistent framework. As water scarcity increases worldwide, water managers will increasingly turn to tools that reveal solutions to increase efficiency in water use, fostering improved economic development through better-informed policy choices.

Article

Performance Bonding for Environmental Protection  

Olli-Pekka Kuusela

Performance bonds are a widely used enforcement and assurance mechanism in extractive activities and large-scale projects that are associated with clearly defined environmental liabilities. They are especially effective and useful in conditions where the judgment-proof problem is a pervasive challenge. Bonds provide an assurance for the regulator that funds are available to complete the decommissioning activities and the termination of operations under contingencies where the operator fails to follow the contractual obligations or becomes insolvent. Applications of bonding are found in oil and gas drilling, surface mining, renewable energy projects, and timber concessions. However, real bonding systems are not without issues and limitations. Defining a sufficiently high enough bond has been especially challenging in conditions with limited information about costs and environmental risks and where smaller operators may not be able to secure access to required funds or financial services for posting the bond. The use of surety companies, bond pools, and blanket bonds provides a solution to these problems, albeit not without issues of their own. Furthermore, to keep up with the technological developments in extractive industries and with the inescapable uncertainties related to reclamation costs and environmental damages, the regulator should continually review and update bonding instruments based on new available information. Regulatory rules and statistical models that have been developed to adjust the required bonds, based on observable risk factors, provide some encouraging examples for how to design more responsive and effective bonding systems.