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date: 17 November 2019

Summary and Keywords

Militarization is defined as a process that fundamentally changes society and all types of relations in it, the formal and institutional as well as the informal and the intimate. In a militarized society, women and men are often affected differently. At its most extreme, militarization results in the disappearance of civil, civilianized space, leaving the civilians with no choice but to live in symbiosis with the military and its war-making. Since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady flow of feminist literature specifically exploring questions on gender and militarization in various disciplines, including International Relations (IR), as well as men and masculinity. The debate between modernists and postmodernists in feminist research of the 1990s questioned the universalizing effects of using the term “woman.” Postmodernists argued that the field should be broadened by introducing the concept of gender and investigating how different structures intersect in creating socioeconomic power relations between women, as well as between women and men, on a global scale. Another strand of thinking implies that it is the gender order of male superiority and female inferiority that drives militarization and war. Some studies on gendered militarization have advanced the idea of a military organization that is democratic, but still has the option of using violent means to defend or to threaten. The question that remains is: in an era dominated by the “War on Terror” and its global ontology of security/insecurity, how we begin to fight militarization without becoming militarized ourselves.

Keywords: militarization, women, men, feminism, gender, gender order, war, gendered militarization, War on Terror, masculinity

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