Summary and Keywords
One of the biggest challenges in studying internal conflict is the fact that internal strife and instability is not the norm. Across diverse groups, societies, and regimes, cooperation even in the context of contention is typical. However, conflicts that occur along ethnic or nationalist lines are often the most protracted, violent, and difficult to resolve in the long term. Civil wars can be divided into two distinct types: ethnic/religious wars (identity), and revolutionary wars (nonidentity). The distinction between these conflict types is based on whether cleavages within a society occur along ethnic lines or along lines that cut across ethnic divisions and are focused on issues including class, ideology, or seeking significant policy changes. Several scholarly traditions and theoretical approaches exist to explain identity mobilization along ethnic or nationalist lines, the contributing factors that explain the transition from mobilization to the exercise of political violence, the duration of identity-based conflicts, and the long-term prospects for settlement of the conflict. These theories can be organized by societal, political, and economic theoretical approaches. Explanations of conflicts based on sociology and comparative politics focus on the formation and maintenance of identity. Macro-level structural explanations for internal conflict focus on the capability or capacity of the state and the distribution of political authority within a political system as critical components in the emergence of conflict. Economic theories consider the feasibility of opposition and the motivation of individuals to choose rebellion.
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