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Diplomacy and International Law  

David Clinton

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Diplomacy, International Law
Within the international society, law and diplomacy have always been complementary and interdependent. However, lawyers and diplomats deal with international issues differently, making them ... More

Diplomacy and People  

Jozef Bátora

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Diplomacy
Public opinion has long been associated with diplomacy. The earliest records of public involvement in diplomacy are available from the city-states of ancient Greece, where diplomats in the ... More

Diplomacy and Religion  

Scott Thomas

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Diplomacy
Religion has long been seen as an obstacle to diplomacy, especially in disputes and conflicts that seem to be related to or motivated by religion. The very nature of religion—its concerns ... More

Diplomacy and Revolution  

Noé Cornago

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Diplomacy
The relationship between diplomacy and revolution is often intertwined with the broader issue of the international dimensions of revolution. Diplomacy can offer important insights into both ... More

Diplomacy and War  

Robert Weiner and Paul Sharp

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Conflict Studies, Diplomacy
Scholars acknowledge that there is a close connection between diplomacy and war, but they disagree with regard to the character of this connection—what it is and what it ought to be. In ... More

Domestic Application of International Human Rights Norms and Universal Jurisdiction  

Ronald C. Slye

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Human Rights
Domestic courts play an important role in the adjudication of international law, including international human rights law. The relationship between international and domestic law has often ... More

Domestic-International Conflict Linkages  

Will H. Moore and Ahmer Tarar

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Conflict Studies
A significant shift has taken place within the study of international relations (IR) generally, and within the domestic-international conflict linkage literature specifically. This shift ... More

Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy Analysis: Public Opinion, Elections, Interest Groups, and the Media  

Douglas C. Foyle and Douglas Van Belle

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Foreign Policy
Societal factors such as public opinion, interest groups, and the media can influence foreign policy choices and behavior. To date, the public opinion and foreign policy literature has ... More

The Durability of Peace  

Caroline A. Hartzell and Amy Yuen

Print publication date:
Dec 2014
Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Conflict Studies
With wars—not just global, but civil wars and other domestic infightings—still being rampant in the modern world, scholars have begun to develop interest in identifying the conditions that ... More

Early Warning and Conflict Prevention Responsibilities of the International Community  

Alice Ackermann

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Conflict Studies
As human tragedies—such as armed conflicts, humanitarian crises, crimes against humanity, and genocide—continue to occur, early warning and conflict prevention are essential comprehensive ... More

East Asia and Foreign Policy  

Enyu Zhang and Qingmin Zhang

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Foreign Policy
The study of East Asian foreign policies has progressed in sync with mainstream international relations (IR) theories: (1) from perhaps an inadvertent or unconscious coincidence with ... More

Ecofeminism and Global Environmental Politics  

Juliann Emmons Allison

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environment, Political Sociology
Ecofeminism can be described as both an ecological philosophy and a social movement that draws on environmental studies, critiques of modernity and science, and feminist critical analyses ... More

Economic and Social Rights  

William F. Felice

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Human Rights
Economic rights refer to the right to property, the right to work, and the right to social security. Social rights are those entitlements necessary for an adequate standard of living, ... More

Economic Diplomacy  

Donna Lee and Brian Hocking

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Diplomacy, Political Economy
Mainstream studies of diplomacy have traditionally approached international relations (IR) using realist and neorealist frameworks, resulting in state-centric analyses of mainly political ... More

Economic Sanctions and International Security  

David M. Rowe

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Security Studies
Economic sanctions are a versatile instrument of statecraft used by states to try to influence the behavior of foreign actors by threatening or restricting customary cross-border trade or ... More

Economics and Conflict: Moving beyond Conjectures and Correlations  

Gerald Schneider

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Conflict Studies
The theoretical and empirical literature on the reciprocal topics of economy and war have developed a fertile debate. Most contributions examine the liberal hope that growing economic bonds ... More

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights  

Henry F. Carey

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Human Rights
Economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCRs) emerged in the twentieth century as the set of “second-generation” rights after civil and political rights (CPRs). ESCRs represent the ... More

Economics of International Communication  

Stefan H. Fritsch

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Political Communication, Political Economy
International information and communication have become central cornerstones for global economic, political, social, and cultural actors, issues, structures, and processes. Accordingly, ... More

E-Government  

Gisela Gil-Egui

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
International Relations Theory
E-government refers to a set of public administration and governance goals and practices involving information and communication technologies (ICTs). It utilizes such technologies to serve ... More

Electronic Commerce  

Sarah Cleeland Knight and Catherine L. Mann

Print publication date:
Mar 2010
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
International Relations Theory
Electronic commerce (or e-commerce) is the purchase or sale of goods or services over any kind of computer network. Possible networks include the Internet; an extranet, which is a private ... More

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