Critical perspectives not only evaluate and assess critically the wrongs of peace operations but also open new avenues for peacebuilding. At their best, critiques become lessons learned, sources of inspiration and regulative norms that contribute to the advancement of policy thinking and practice. Three imaginaries of critiques of liberal peace stand out: a locally driven peace that emerges from below; nonlinear interventions to tackle different aspects of crises ; and indirect forms of facilitation and strengthening resilience. Scholarly critiques have been influential in pushing the practice of peace operations away from the top-down, short-term, and direct mechanisms of governance of the liberal peace.
Liberal Peacebuilding and Its Critiques
Global and Regional Cooperation on Migration
The problem of international migration is that global cooperation is somewhat rare. If international cooperation is to develop, then it will depend on states; but effective cooperation would also impose real constraints on states. Moreover, as states and their borders give meaning to international migration, it follows that the development, consolidation, and transformation of the state system is a key factor determining the possibilities for the global and regional governance of migration to develop. Existing forms of regional integration and their migration provisions as well as regional consultation processes (RCPs) can serve as a mechanism for intraregional communication, the sharing of knowledge, and for the dissemination of policy ideas and practices. The EU has already been discussed as the world’s most highly developed form of regional integration. It is the only international organization with the power and capacity to make and implement laws through its own institutional system that must be implemented by member states. The EU moreover has a highly developed system of internal free movement for nationals of its own states and has developed a border-free travel area for participating states. These developments constitute the hallmark of a highly developed intra-EU migration framework linked to the creation of the “single market.”