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Human Rights and the Mexican Student Movement of 1968  

Elaine Carey

Published Online:
Sep 2018
The 1968 Mexican student movement remains essential to the formation of the modern Mexican human rights movement. Mexico has had a long tradition of revolutionary activity, rural social ... More

Humboldt in Mexico, 1803–1804  

Myron Echenberg

During his breathtaking 19th-century scientific explorations of New Spain (as Mexico was known under Spanish rule), illustrious German scientific traveler Alexander von Humboldt crammed a ... More

Immigration and National Identity in Latin America, 1870–1930  

Michael Goebel

Although on a lesser scale than the United States, southern South America became a major receiving region during the period of mass transatlantic migration in the late 19th and early 20th ... More

The Incas of the Andes  

Susan Elizabeth Ramirez

The Inca (also Inka) Empire, called by the Andeans themselves “Tawantinsuyu,” referred to its four parts: the Chinchaysuyu, the Antisuyu, the Collasuyu, and the Cuntisuyu. ... More

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824  

Jaime E. Rodríguez O.

Published Online:
Jul 2018
The independence of New Spain was not the result of an anti-colonial struggle. Rather, it was a consequence of a great political revolution that culminated in the dissolution of the ... More

Indigenismo  

Estelle Tarica

Indigenismo is a term that refers to a broad grouping of discourses—in politics, the social sciences, literature, and the arts—concerned with the status of “the Indian” in Latin American ... More

Indigenous Intellectuals in Colonial Latin America  

David Tavárez

The epistemic assumptions, methods, and rhetoric employed by colonial indigenous intellectuals in Latin America were based on preconquest intellectual labor and literacy systems. These ... More

Indigenous Mobilizations and the Mexican Government during the 20th Century  

María L. O. Muñoz

Published Online:
Nov 2016
The political history of indigenous peoples in Mexico during the 20th century is complex, particularly because it intersects with changing local, state, and federal government projects ... More

Indigenous Portraits and Casta Paintings in the Spanish Americas  

Dana Leibsohn and Meha Priyadarshini

For historians of the Spanish Americas indigenous portraits and casta paintings offer two distinctive lenses for understanding the relationships between indigeneity and colonialism. Both ... More

Indigenous Societies in Brazil before the European Arrival  

Denise Maria Cavalcante Gomes

Published Online:
Aug 2018
Before the Portuguese arrived in Brazil at the beginning of the 16th century, the vast area that today constitutes the national territory was occupied by different indigenous groups, the ... More

Indigo in the Atlantic World  

Adrianna Catena

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Around 1560, indigo-yielding plants were identified in the New World. Settlers turned with enthusiasm to the industry, cultivating the native Indigofera species on large-scale plantations ... More

Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura  

Liliana Toledo Guzmán

The Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA; National Institute of Fine Arts) was created to replace and broaden the functions of the Departamento de Bellas Artes (DBA; Department of Fine ... More

Intellectuals and the Nation in Early 20th-Century Brazil  

Sergio Miceli

In Brazil between 1920 and 1945, the potential for professional advancement increased significantly among literate individuals in three main areas: the intellectual and academic field in ... More

The Internal Provinces of the Northern Spanish Empire  

Cecilia Sheridan-Prieto

Published Online:
Jun 2018
In New Spain, the 18th century was characterized by important political and administrative changes in imperial geopolicy that stemmed from the reforms introduced by Spain’s king, Charles ... More

Internment of Japanese and Japanese Latin Americans During World War II  

Selfa A. Chew

The lives of Latin American Japanese were disrupted during World War II, when their civil and human rights were suspended. National security and continental defense were the main reasons ... More

Japanese Immigration to Brazil  

Mieko Nishida

Japanese immigration to Brazil started in 1908 as a replacement for European immigrants to work for the state of São Paulo’s expanding coffee industry. It peaked in the late 1920s and ... More

Jean Charlot and the Mexican Mural Renaissance  

John Charlot

Published Online:
Feb 2018
That the Mexican mural renaissance is understudied is clear from the fact than not one of its artists has been the subject of a scholarly biography. Moreover, the movement as a whole has ... More

Jesuit Missions and Private Property, Commerce, and Guaraní Economic Initiative  

Julia Sarreal

The mission economy supported tens of thousands of Guaraní Indians and made the Jesuit reducciones (1609 to 1767) the most populous and financially prosperous of all the missions among ... More

José Guadalupe Posada and Visual Culture in Porfirian Mexico  

Robert M. Buffington and Jesus Osciel Salazar

José Guadalupe Posada (b. Aguascalientes, February 2, 1852; d. Mexico City, January 20, 1913) was a prolific printmaker of exceptional technique, range, and originality. By the time of his ... More

José Ingenieros, El Hombre Mediocre, and Social Integration in Turn-of-the-20th-Century Argentina  

Mariano Ben Plotkin

The life of Italian-Argentine scientist and intellectual José Ingenieros (1877–1925) has been considered a clear example of the potential for upward social mobility based on talent that ... More

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