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National History Museum, Chapultepec Castle  

Salvador Rueda Smithers

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
As a monument and museum, Chapultepec Castle is today an emblem for Mexicans. It signified a double synthesis of memory: the building tells the history of the old Military College and the ... More

National Parks in Colombia  

Claudia Leal

The history of Colombian national parks started in 1948 with the establishment of a reserve for scientific research, which stood alone until the 1960s, when various state agencies created ... More

Nature Conservation and Protection in Mexico  

Emily Wakild

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Conservation, in broad terms, has been a dynamic and nuanced practice throughout Mexican history. Nature conservation and protection include individual practices such as planting trees to ... More

Neoliberalism and Free Trade in Latin America  

Robert Jordan

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
First utilized in Latin America in response to the mid-20th-century decline of populist economic policymaking in the region, modern neoclassical theory, or neoliberalism, can be generally ... More

The New Philology and the New History of Religion in New Spain  

Mark Christensen

The New Philology and its emphasis on the use of indigenous-language sources for ethnohistorical insights contributes greatly to the study of religion in New Spain. Previous studies ... More

Nineteenth-Century Foreign Travelers to Central America  

Arturo Taracena Arriola

Foreign travelers, mainly from Europe and the United States, did not come to Central America until the founding of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823 after independence from ... More

Oil and Environment in Mexico  

Myrna Santiago

Before there was Mexico, there was oil. Millennia of organic matter that collapsed and liquefied into fossil fuel rested deep underground and underwater along the half-moon territorial ... More

Oil in the Andes  

Stephen Cote

All of the Andean nations possess oil. Each has a unique historical relationship with petroleum, but there are also similarities between the histories of oil production in Bolivia, ... More

Oliveira Lima and the Oliveira Lima Library at the Catholic University of America  

Nathalia Henrich

Manoel de Oliveira Lima (b. Recife, December 25, 1867–d. Washington DC, March 24, 1928) was one of the most prestigious men of letters of his generation. As a historian, diplomat, literary ... More

Operation Pedro Pan: The Migration of Unaccompanied Cuban Children to the United States, 1960–1962  

Anita Casavantes Bradford

Between the autumn of 1960 and October of 1962, the parents of more than fourteen thousand Cuban children made the difficult decision to send their children alone to the United States, ... More

Ordinary Opinions of Everyday Mexicans: Polling from the 1940s–2012  

Roderic Ai Camp

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
The evolution of the importance of public opinion in Mexico is intertwined with the emphasis of scholars, both foreign and Mexican, introducing survey research techniques. These efforts ... More

Oscar Arias and the Treaty of Esquipulas  

Philip Travis

Throughout the 1980s, Central America was wracked by conflict. El Salvador faced a guerrilla insurgency, Guatemala’s long conflict festered, and Nicaragua faced a continually escalating ... More

Oscar Lewis, Urban Poverty, and The Children of Sánchez  

Joshua K. Salyers

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Revolutionary leaders favored depictions of Mexico City in the mid-20th century that highlighted the progress and orderly growth of a modern industrial city. The ruling party made Mexico ... More

Overpopulation Debates in Latin America during the Cold War  

Eve Buckley

From the 1950s to the 1970s, numerous academics and non-governmental organizations based in the United States generated alarm about political and ecological threats posed by human ... More

Paraguayan National Identity  

Peter Lambert

Online publication date:
Aug 2015
Paraguay is a pluriethnic, plurilingual, and multicultural society, influenced by migration from the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa, which contains many conflicting identities. Despite ... More

Paraguayan Politics, Economics, and Cultural Identity, 1870–1936  

Bridget María Chesterton

In the period 1870–1936, Paraguay began to redevelop economically after its devastating loss in the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870). Turning to a liberal economic model popular in ... More

The Paraguayan War and Brazilian National Identity  

Wilma Peres Costa

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The effort of searching the effects of the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay on the building up of Brazilian national identity challenges the historian with a paradox: why the ... More

Pardos, Free Blacks, and Slave Rebellions in Venezuela during the Age of the Atlantic Revolutions  

Cristina Soriano

During the last decades of the 18th century, Venezuela witnessed the emergence of several popular rebellions and conspiracies organized against the colonial government. Many of these ... More

Parícutin: Volcano in a Cornfield  

Claire Perrott

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
In February 1943, a small but powerful volcano emerged from a cornfield in the vicinity of Uruapan, Michoacán, México. A stunned farmer, Dionisio Pulido, alerted the nearby town of San ... More

Pedro Infante and the Mexican Imagination  

Sal Acosta

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Pedro Infante (1917–1957) remains one of Mexico’s most beloved entertainers of all time. His films and songs, his life story and his charm, but also his death and funeral and the ... More

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