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Postrevolutionary Poster Art and Graphic Design in Cuba  

Claudio Sotolongo

The Cuban film posters produced by the Institute of Cinematic Art and Industry from 1964 to 1974 were the synthesis of an exploratory process that defined new subject matter established by ... More

Potosí Mines  

Kris Lane

This article examines the long history of Potosí, Bolivia, home of the world’s most productive silver mines. The mines, discovered in 1545 and still active today, are discussed in terms of ... More

Pre-Columbian Earth Builders of the Amazon  

Jonas Gregorio de Souza

Online publication date:
May 2019
Continuing advances in the archaeology of the Amazon have changed long-standing misconceptions about the rainforest as a homogeneous, nearly pristine environment occupied by small, ... More

President Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (b. Rio de Janeiro, June 18, 1931) had an influential academic career before going into politics and becoming a senator, foreign minister, finance minister and ... More

Private Enterprise, Colonialism, and the Atlantic World  

L.H. Roper

European empires would have not existed absent private enterprise both licit and illicit. Private traders, in the first instance, sustained colonies by conveying the labor and merchandise ... More

The Promise and Peril of Gold Mining on Spanish and Portuguese Imperial Frontiers  

Heidi V. Scott

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Between 1796 and 1809, an array of pro- and anti-mining discourses unfolded in response to a proposal to mine gold in the former Jesuit mission territories of Chiquitos. In the last years ... More

Psychiatry and Insanity in Mexico, 1876–1968  

Andrés Ríos Molina

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
In Mexico, there were hospitals for the “demented” from the early years of the Spanish colony. It was not until the second half of the 19th century, however, that the first physicians ... More

Public Health in Mexico, 1870–1943  

Claudia Agostoni

The prevention of communicable diseases, the containment of epidemic disorders, and the design of programs and the implementation of public health policies went through important ... More

The Public Sphere and Liberalism in Mexico from the Mid-19th Century to the 1930s  

Pablo A. Piccato

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Free speech was a greater concern for Mexican politicians, legislators, and intellectuals during the 19th century than electoral democracy. This can be easily verified by looking at the ... More

The Public Sphere in Mexico since the Mid-20th Century  

Vanessa Freije

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
At midcentury, the expansion of a middle class, rapid urbanization, and rising literacy rates transformed Mexico’s public sphere. Available reading material and access to television ... More

Publishing Houses and the 'Discovery' of Brazil, 1930–1950  

Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The flourishing of the publishing market in Brazil in the first decades of the 20th century is associated with the social, economic, and political transformations that accompanied the ... More

Pulque: A Pre-Columbian Alcoholic Beverage of Mexico  

David Yetman

Pulque, the alcoholic beverage of pre-Columbian highland Mesoamerica is the fermented derivative of aguamiel, the juice or sap of the agave known as agave pulquero—principally Agave ... More

Quechua  

Alan Durston

The Quechua languages are spoken today by several million people in the Andes Mountains and adjacent lowlands, from northwestern Argentina to southwestern Colombia. Quechua historical ... More

Railroads and the Mexican Imagination during the Porfiriato and Revolution  

Michael Matthews

Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, the Mexican populace demonstrated a fascination with the nation’s railroads. Newspapers, literature, poetry, music, and art focused their ... More

Rediscovering the Aztecs and Mayas: Field Exploration, Archaeological Exhibits, and National Museums  

Kevin M. Gosner

In the last decades of the 18th century, with the visit in 1784 of José Antonio Calderón to the Maya ruins at Palenque and the discovery in 1790 of the statue of Coatlicue and the Stone of ... More

REFLORA: A Virtual Way to Share Information about Brazilian Plants  

Daniela Zappi, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza, and E. Nic Lughadha

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Reforma Period in Mexico  

Paul Vanderwood and Robert Weis

Online publication date:
May 2018
By revealing the weaknesses of its political system and the fragmentation of its social fabric, Mexico’s devastating loss to the United States in 1848 forced a reexamination of the ... More

Relations between the Andes and the Upper Amazon  

Stefano Varese

Peoples and biotas of the Andes and Amazonia have been interacting for millennia, influencing each other through complex dynamics of biological, social, and cultural adaptations. The ... More

Religion and Politics in 20th-Century Central America  

Virginia Garrard-Burnett

The role of religion shifted dramatically in Central American politics during the 20th century, as the Catholic Church moved from a position as conservator of the status quo to a powerful ... More

Revolutionary Influences on Genre Cinema in Mexico  

Jennifer L. Jenkins

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The visual and technical culture of the Mexican Revolution shaped and was shaped by cinematic innovation in newsreel and fiction filmmaking, which evolved simultaneously with those social ... More

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