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Taxation, Money, Credit, and the Consolidation of Oligarchic Rule in El Salvador, 1848–1931  

Antonio Acosta

Published Online:
May 2019
The formation of El Salvador’s oligarchy was a long and complex process. Its beginning can be traced to 1848, when the first export of Salvadoran coffee took place. The first stage in its ... More

Technology in 19th-Century Mexico  

Edward Beatty

“Technology” is the practical expression of accumulated knowledge and expertise focused on how to mediate and manipulate the world. Scholars and contemporary observers of Mexico have long ... More

The Federal Republic of Central America, 1824–1840  

Luis Pedro Taracena Arriola

The Federal Republic of Central America existed for a brief but critical period in Central American history. Tension in the region between its colonial legacy and liberal aspiration and ... More

The Leclerc Expedition to Saint-Domingue and the Independence of Haiti, 1802–1804  

Philippe Girard

In December 1801, First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte sent a massive expedition to the French colony of Saint-Domingue (today: Haiti). His goal was to restore direct French rule and overthrow ... More

The Meaning of Color and Race in Portuguese America, 1640–1750  

Ronald Raminelli

Color and race are important references for assessing the privileges and barriers that sustained or impeded the social ascension of New Christians, Africans, Indians, and mestiços in the ... More

Theories and Experiences of Guerrilla Warfare across the Americas  

Rachel May

The strategy of irregular warfare has been used since ancient times, but the term “guerrilla warfare” seems to have originated in early-19th-century Spain during the Napoleonic wars. ... More

The Wreck of the USS Memphis in the Dominican Republic  

Eric Paul Roorda

Published Online:
Feb 2019
On August 29, 1916, the USS Memphis wrecked on the coast of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. A series of enormous waves drove the heavy armored cruiser ashore, killing forty-five ... More

The Three Faces of the Mexican Family, 1872 to the Present  

Elena Jackson Albarrán

Published Online:
Sep 2015
The shape, function, and social meaning of the Mexican family changed alongside its relationship to the state, the Catholic Church, and popularly held beliefs and customs over the course ... More

Tourism and Connoisseurship in the Collection Histories of Haitian Art in the United States  

Peter Haffner

Published Online:
Jul 2017
The Midwestern United States is home to several major public museum collections of Haitian art. These collections were established within a short period between the late 1960s and early ... More

Transatlantic Family-Making: Jamaica and Great Britain  

Daniel Livesay

Forming and encouraging families in Jamaica was a struggle from the very beginning of English colonization there, making Caribbean households transatlantic in nature. The explosion of ... More

The Transatlantic Financial Crisis of 1837  

Stephen W. Campbell

The Transatlantic Financial Crisis of 1837 produced a global depression that lasted until the mid-1840s. Falling cotton prices, a collapsing land bubble, and fiscal and monetary policies ... More

Transatlantic Opera in Spain and the New World in the 17th and Early 18th Centuries  

Chad M. Gasta

Opera was performed in the Spanish-speaking New World colonies almost a century before what later would become the United States. The first operas staged in the Spanish colonies were ... More

Translating José María Heredia  

Frederick Luciani

The Cuban poet José María Heredia (1803–1839) spent twenty months exiled to the United States because of his involvement in pro-independence conspiracies. In that time, Heredia wrote a ... More

Travel and Transport in Mexico  

J. Brian Freeman and Guillermo Guajardo Soto

Published Online:
Jul 2018
In his 1950 study, Mexico: The Struggle for Peace and Bread, historian Frank Tannenbaum remarked that “physical geography could not have been better designed to isolate Mexico from the ... More

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Peru  

Jaymie Heilman

From 2001 to 2003, Peru’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (the Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación del Perú, or CVR) investigated and reported on human rights abuses committed in ... More

The Túpac Amaru and the Katarista Rebellions  

Sergio E. Serulnikov

Led by Túpac Amaru, Túpac Katari, Tomás Katari, and others, the pan-Andean uprising from 1780 to 1782 was the largest and most radical indigenous challenge to Spanish colonial rule in the ... More

Ubre Blanca and the Politics of Milk in Socialist Cuba  

Reinaldo Funes Monzote

In the summer of 1981 the cow named Ubre Blanca (White Udder), born on Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos) in the southern Cuban archipelago, became headline news for her high ... More

The United States and the 1964 Brazilian Military Coup  

Matias Spektor

The John F. Kennedy administration took a bet on the incoming president of Brazil, João Goulart, as he took office on September 8, 1961. Goulart was not a radical socialist, but his ... More

Urbanization and Environment in Mexico since 1521  

Matthew Vitz

Urbanization and environmental change have worked in tandem over the course of Mexican history. Hinterland production, the establishment of market economies, and the intensive ... More

Uruguayan Cinema in the 20th Century  

Daniel Alex Richter

Cinema began in Uruguay with the exhibition of foreign films by visiting representatives of the Lumière brothers in 1896 before the first Uruguayan film was produced and shown in 1898. ... More

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