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Oil and Environment in Mexico  

Myrna Santiago

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Before there was Mexico, there was oil. Millennia of organic matter that collapsed and liquefied into fossil fuel rested deep underground and underwater along the half-moon territorial ... More

Oil in the Andes  

Stephen Cote

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
All of the Andean nations possess oil. Each has a unique historical relationship with petroleum, but there are also similarities between the histories of oil production in Bolivia, Ecuador, ... More

Oliveira Lima and the Oliveira Lima Library at the Catholic University of America  

Nathalia Henrich

Manoel de Oliveira Lima (b. Recife, December 25, 1867–d. Washington DC, March 24, 1928) was one of the most prestigious men of letters of his generation. As a historian, diplomat, literary ... More

Operation Pedro Pan: The Migration of Unaccompanied Cuban Children to the United States, 1960–1962  

Anita Casavantes Bradford

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Between the autumn of 1960 and October of 1962, the parents of more than fourteen thousand Cuban children made the difficult decision to send their children alone to the United States, ... More

Ordinary Opinions of Everyday Mexicans: Polling from the 1940s–2012  

Roderic Ai Camp

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico
The evolution of the importance of public opinion in Mexico is intertwined with the emphasis of scholars, both foreign and Mexican, introducing survey research techniques. These efforts ... More

Oscar Arias and the Treaty of Esquipulas  

Philip Travis

Throughout the 1980s, Central America was wracked by conflict. El Salvador faced a guerrilla insurgency, Guatemala’s long conflict festered, and Nicaragua faced a continually escalating ... More

Oscar Lewis, Urban Poverty, and The Children of Sánchez  

Joshua K. Salyers

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Revolutionary leaders favored depictions of Mexico City in the mid-20th century that highlighted the progress and orderly growth of a modern industrial city. The ruling party made Mexico ... More

Overpopulation Debates in Latin America during the Cold War  

Eve Buckley

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the 1950s to the 1970s, numerous academics and non-governmental organizations based in the United States generated alarm about political and ecological threats posed by human ... More

Palmares and Zumbi: Quilombo Resistance to Colonial Slavery  

Luiz Geraldo Silva

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil
Existing in the 16th and 17th centuries and located in the captaincy of Pernambuco, in the Northeast of Brazil, the quilombo of Palmares was one of most vigorous and complex societies ... More

Pan-Mexicanism through Radio, 1936–1942  

Priscila Pilatowsky

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Between the 1920s and 1940s, Mexican culture became the subject of enthusiastic interest across the Americas and several European countries. This interest was due, among other things, to ... More

Paraguayan National Identity  

Peter Lambert

Online publication date:
Aug 2015
Paraguay is a pluriethnic, plurilingual, and multicultural society, influenced by migration from the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa, which contains many conflicting identities. Despite ... More

Paraguayan Politics, Economics, and Cultural Identity, 1870–1936  

Bridget María Chesterton

In the period 1870–1936, Paraguay began to redevelop economically after its devastating loss in the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870). Turning to a liberal economic model popular in ... More

The Paraguayan War and Brazilian National Identity  

Wilma Peres Costa

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, 1824–c. 1880, Military History
The effort of searching the effects of the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay on the building up of Brazilian national identity challenges the historian with a paradox: why the ... More

Pardos, Free Blacks, and Slave Rebellions in Venezuela during the Age of the Atlantic Revolutions  

Cristina Soriano

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
During the last decades of the 18th century, Venezuela witnessed the emergence of several popular rebellions and conspiracies organized against the colonial government. Many of these ... More

Parícutin: Volcano in a Cornfield  

Claire Perrott

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, Environmental History
In February 1943, a small but powerful volcano emerged from a cornfield in the vicinity of Uruapan, Michoacán, México. A stunned farmer, Dionisio Pulido, alerted the nearby town of San Juan ... More

Pedro Infante and the Mexican Imagination  

Sal Acosta

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, Cultural History
Pedro Infante (1917–1957) remains one of Mexico’s most beloved entertainers of all time. His films and songs, his life story and his charm, but also his death and funeral and the ... More

Pentecostalism in Brazil  

R. Andrew Chesnut and Kate Kingsbury

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, Church and Religious History
Brazil was colonized by the Portuguese in the 1500s, and an integral part of conquest and colonization was missionary activity by Catholic clergy. Brazil, like all of Latin America, was ... More

Photography and Cinema in 20th-Century Mexico  

John Mraz

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, Cultural History
Photography, film, and other forms of technical imagery were incorporated quickly into Mexican society upon their respective arrivals, joining other visual expressions such as murals and ... More

The Pizarro Clan  

Susan Elizabeth Ramirez

This essay focuses on the principal Pizarro family members who played active roles in the exploration, invasion, and colonization of the Andes. Francisco Pizarro served as leader until his ... More

Political Economy, Race, and National Identity in Central America, 1500–2000  

Dario A. Euraque

The relationship between historically specific ideas of race and national identity in Central America between the onset of Spanish colonialism in the region, in about 1500, and the end of ... More

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