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US and the Cold War in Latin America  

Thomas C. Field Jr.

The Cold War in Latin America had marked consequences for the region’s political and economic evolution. From the origins of US fears of Latin American Communism in the early 20th century ... More

US Foreign Policy toward Latin America in the 19th Century  

Brian Loveman

U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America in the 19th century initially focused on excluding or limiting the military and economic influence of European powers, territorial expansion, and ... More

US Interventions and Occupations in Latin America  

Alan McPherson

From 1800 to the present, US troops have intervened thousands of times in Latin America and have occupied its countries on dozens of occasions. Interventions were short-term and ... More

Vatican Foreign Relations with Latin America since Independence  

Stephen J. C. Andes

Vatican foreign relations with Latin America comprise both bilateral diplomatic negotiations with states and the Holy See’s spiritual leadership of national Catholic Churches in the ... More

The Virgin of Guadalupe as an Iconic Image in Mexican Culture  

Charlene Villaseñor Black

According to believers, the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared in 1531 to recent indigenous convert Juan Diego on the hill of Tepeyac, north of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, an area in the ... More

Visions of the Nation in Imperial Brazil: Arts and Celebrations  

Maria Ligia Coelho Prado

Published Online:
Aug 2018
The imperial period in Brazil (1822–1889) is central to a better understanding of the particularities of Brazilian history in the broader context of Latin America. Independence in relation ... More

War and Peace between Mexico and the United States in the 18th and 19th Centuries  

Josefina Zoraida Vázquez

Published Online:
May 2018
The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) formed the background for independence movements in the Americas. Great Britain increased its colonial land and was forced to make reforms in order to ... More

Wars of Spanish-American Independence  

Natalia Sobrevilla Perea

The wars of Spanish-American independence were a series of military campaigns that took place in the Americas between 1809 and 1825, which resulted in the creation of more than a dozen ... More

Water and Environmental Change in the US–Mexico Borderlands  

Sterling Evans

Aridity, a significant characteristic of the U.S.–Mexico borderlands, has affected water use patterns for different groups of people in this region for thousands of years. From indigenous ... More

Women and Commercial Sex in the Viceroyalty of New Spain  

Nicole von Germeten

Female occupational and economic choices help clarify understandings of colonial historic agency, especially in the lives of Mexican women who made their income as alcahuetas or “bawds.” ... More

Women and the Catholic Church in Colonial Brazil  

Carole A. Myscofski

Women in colonial Brazil (1500–1822) were affected by the presence of the Portuguese Roman Catholic Church in nearly every dimension of their lives. The Catholic Church dominated the ... More

Women in Mexican Politics since 1953  

Sonia Hernández

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Since the founding of the Mexican republic, women have been politically engaged in their respective communities. The creation of a modern nation-state during the last decades of the 19th ... More

The Women of Guadalajara in Mexico’s History  

María Teresa Fernández Aceves

Published Online:
Aug 2016
From the War of Independence until the recognition of female suffrage in Mexico in 1953, the women of Guadalajara witnessed different forms of activism that touched upon national and local ... More

Women, Politics, and Media in Uruguay, 1900–1950  

Christine Ehrick

In the first half of the 20th century, Uruguay was a relatively educated, democratic, and politically progressive South American country, and women there used old and new media for ... More

Working Women in the Mexican Revolution  

Susie S. Porter

From la Adelita to the suffragette, from la chica moderna to the factory girl dressed in red shirt and black skirt—the colors of the anarchist—women’s mobilization in the midst of Mexican ... More

Yellow Fever in the Caribbean  

Mariola Espinosa

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

#YoSoy132, Social Media, and Political Organization  

Javier Contreras Alcántara

Published Online:
Oct 2017
During the 2012 presidential election in Mexico, a movement arose that broke with the existing framework of political mobilizations. What began as a protest to call into question the past ... More

Zoos in Latin America  

Regina Horta Duarte

Modern zoos emerged as mass entertainment, spaces of public leisure and of culture. In the past, they served as monuments and expressions of the degree of “civilization” and progress of a ... More

The Zoque Carnivals of Northwestern Chiapas, Mexico  

Gillian E. Newell

Published Online:
Jul 2018
Every year, in the days just prior to Catholic Ash Wednesday, the indigenous Zoque peoples of northwestern Chiapas, Mexico, celebrate “carnival.” In doing so, they affirm their ethnic ... More

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