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Caste Wars in Yucatán  

Michele McArdle Stephens

The Caste Wars of the Yucatán tore apart the peninsula between 1847 and 1901. While the violence was not constant throughout the more than five decades between the start and conclusion of ... More

Catholicism in Mexico, 1910 to the Present  

Matthew Butler

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The history of Mexican Catholicism between 1910 and 2010 was one of successive conflict and compromise with the state, latterly coupled with increased concern about religious pluralism, ... More

Catholics, Evangelicals, and US Policy in Central America  

Michael Cangemi

During the Cold War’s earliest years, right-wing governments and oligarchic elites in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua fostered closer relationships with the Catholic Church. ... More

The Central American Coffee Commodity Chain  

Mario Samper Kutschbach

Online publication date:
May 2019
Coffee production has been a significant economic activity in Central America since the 19th century, and it has played an important role in shaping social relations, politics, and culture ... More

Central America’s Caribbean Coast: Politics and Ethnicity  

Robert Sierakowski

From the period of imperial conquest and competition, the Caribbean coast of Central America has served as an interstitial space: between British and Spanish rule; between foreign ... More

Charlatans and Medicine in 19th-Century Latin America  

Irina Podgorny

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In the long view of history, the charlatan is a merchant in unconventional knowledge defined on the basis of his itinerant existence. Traveling from one marketplace to another, dealing in ... More

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army  

Marco Estrada-Saavedra

The 1994 Zapatista uprising in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas was the culmination of centuries of repression and exploitation of the country’s indigenous minority at the hands of ... More

Child Labor in Brazil and Uruguay  

Marcia Guedes Vieira

The International Labour Organization estimates that there are 12.5 million children and adolescents under the age of fifteen currently working in Latin America and the Caribbean. Of ... More

Chile and the Pacific World  

Edward D. Melillo

Since the early 1800s, Chileans have imagined their nation’s history and destiny through an ever-changing array of transoceanic connections with the rest of the planet. At a deeper level, ... More

Chin Chun Chan: The Zarzuela as an Ethnic and Technological Farce  

Jacqueline Avila

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Chin Chun Chan premiered at the Teatro Principal in Mexico City on April 9, 1904, to an enthusiastic audience. The first Mexican zarzuela written by José F. Elizondo and ... More

Civilian Aviation in Mexico  

Peter Soland

The Mexican government’s civil aviation program implemented elite development strategies during a period of national reconstruction. In the decades following the revolution, political ... More

Coca and Cocaine in Latin American History  

Paul Gootenberg

Coca leaf (“chewed” by indigenous Andean peoples) and cocaine (the notorious modern illicit drug trafficked from the Andes) are deeply emblematic of South America, but neither has ... More

Collecting Picture Postcards of South America  

Hinnerk Onken

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
In their so-called “Golden Age,” from the late 1890s to the 1920s, picture postcards probably were the most prominent visual mass medium, worldwide, including South America. Many people ... More

The Collor Presidency from the Electoral Campaign to the Impeachment  

Brasilio Sallum Jr.

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In December 1989, Fernando Collor was elected President of Brazil, in the first election after the 1988 democratic Constitution. The election occurred under the threat of hyperinflation. ... More

The Colonial Amazon  

Rafael Chambouleyron and Pablo Ibáñez-Bonillo

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The region known as the Amazon represents approximately forty percent of the territory of the South American continent. Today, it spreads through the territory of eight countries and one ... More

The Colonial Economy of New Spain  

Jeremy Baskes

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
For three centuries New Spain was one of the great jewels of Spain’s colonial empire, producing wealth for immigrants and the Crown. The brunt of the labor was performed by indigenous ... More

Colonial Elites: Planters and Land Nobility in 17th- and 18th-Century Brazil  

João Fragoso and Thiago Krause

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Colonial Mosaic of Indigenous New Spain, 1519–1821  

Susan Kellogg

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
From a geographically, environmentally, linguistically, and ethnically highly variable Mesoamerica, Spain created a core region within her American territories. But for New Spain’s ... More

Commodities and Consumption in “Golden Age” Argentina  

Eduardo Elena

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the global trade in commodities forged new economic interconnections and contributed to the emergence of modern ways of life. As one of the ... More

Competing Spanish and Indigenous Jurisdictions in Early Colonial Lima  

Karen B. Graubart

Spanish legal organization required that political communities be represented by a concejo or cabildo, which used customary law to determine and enforce the common good. In the Spanish ... More

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