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Early Modern Afro-Caribbean Healers  

Pablo F. Gómez

In the early modern Spanish Caribbean, ritual practitioners of African descent were essential providers of health care for Caribbean people of all origins. Arriving from West and West ... More

Ecological Science in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Megan Raby

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Economic Integration in 19th- and 20th-Century Central America  

Dora María Téllez

Throughout their history, the countries of Central America have attempted several forms of political and economic integration. After declaring independence in the 19th century, the region ... More

The Economy during the Mexican Revolution  

Mark Wasserman

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The Mexican economy consisted of activities at the international, national, and local levels, including the export of minerals and agricultural commodities, manufactures and agriculture ... More

Emiliano Zapata and Revolutionary Mexico, 1910–1919  

Paul Hart

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Emiliano Zapata led the Liberating Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. Zapata’s movement began with a demand for land reform, and his beliefs are most often captured by ... More

Environmental Conflict and Exploitation in the Coastal Areas of Chile  

Pablo Camus

Small fishermen have lost their ability to make use of the maritime and coastal environments at the same time that the Chilean state has facilitated the introduction of capital and the ... More

The Environmental Crisis in Latin America  

Guillermo Castro H.

An environmental crisis is neither the result of a single factor nor of a combination of such. On the contrary, it results from a complex combination of modes of interaction between ... More

Environmental History of Coffee in Latin America  

Stuart McCook

Coffee has played complex and diverse roles in shaping livelihoods and landscapes in Latin America. This tropical understory tree has been profitably cultivated on large estates, on ... More

Espiritismo and Urban Planning in Cuba: Envisioning Regeneration in Havana and Oriente after 1898  

Reinaldo L. Román

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Espiritismo refers to the practice of communicating with the spirits of the dead by means of especially disposed and trained persons known as mediums. Linked in origin to the ... More

Eugenics in Latin America  

Alexandra Minna Stern

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Eugenics emerged in Latin America in the early 20th century on the intellectual foundations of 19th-century social Darwinism and positivism, and expanded in contexts influenced by ... More

Everyday Life in Argentina in the 1960s  

Isabella Cosse

The 1960s in Argentina was a time convulsed by profound social, cultural, and political changes. Reflecting on the effect these processes had on the everyday, conceived as the spaces and ... More

Evo Morales and Bolivian Politics in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

John Crabtree

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Evo Morales Ayma was elected president of Bolivia in December 2005, taking office in January 2006. He has since been reelected on two separate occasions, in 2009 and 2014. Like Lula in ... More

Excavation and Exhibition of the Pre-Hispanic Cultures during the Porfiriato  

Christina Bueno

In the late 19th century, Mexico’s ancient ruins captivated much of the world. European and American explorers trekked through what was often touted as an “American Egypt” in search of ... More

Exile in 19th-Century Haiti  

Matthew J. Smith

Of the many conditions pronounced that have been strongly featured in the Caribbean experience since the ending of slavery in the 19th century, exile ranks as one of the most profound. Its ... More

The Extraordinary Career of Juana C. Romero, Cacica of Tehuantepec  

Francie Chassen-López

In the 1850s, Juana Catarina Romero, known popularly as Juana Cata, peddled her cigarettes on the streets of Tehuantepec in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, an activity that enabled her to ... More

Family Planning and Reproductive Rights in Chile  

Jadwiga E. Pieper Mooney

The official histories of family planning and reproductive rights in Chile started in the 1960s, with initiatives by Chilean doctors to reduce maternal mortality due to self-induced ... More

FARC, Shining Path, and Guerillas in Latin America  

Marc Becker

Armed insurrections are one of three methods that the left in Latin America has traditionally used to gain power (the other two are competing in elections, or mass uprisings often ... More

Favelas and Politics in Brazil, 1890–1960  

Brodwyn Fischer

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
All cities are forged by politics. But Brazil’s “informal” neighborhoods—and especially the favelas that now shape every Brazilian urban landscape—have an especially raw link to the ... More

Fernando Ortiz on Afro-Cuban Music  

Robin Moore

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Fernando Ortiz is recognized today as one of the most influential Latin American authors of the 20th century. Amazingly prolific, his publications written between the 1890s and the ... More

The Festival de Rock y Ruedas in Avándaro, 1971  

Juan Alberto Salazar Rebolledo

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The Festival de Rock y Ruedas took place in Avándaro, in the suburbs of Valle de Bravo, a small town in Estado de México, on September 11 and 12, 1971. Among the organizers were ... More

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