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José Ingenieros, El Hombre Mediocre, and Social Integration in Turn-of-the-20th-Century Argentina  

Mariano Ben Plotkin

The life of Italian-Argentine scientist and intellectual José Ingenieros (1877–1925) has been considered a clear example of the potential for upward social mobility based on talent that ... More

José Vasconcelos, National Education, and Revolutionary Culture in Mexico  

William Beezley

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
As Mexico’s minister of public education from 1921 to 1924, José Vasconcelos played a prominent role in efforts to create a new national identity expressing the 1910 Revolution’s goals of ... More

Juliet Barrett Rublee and Flame of Mexico  

Elissa Rashkin and Isabel Arredondo

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The 1932 film Flame of Mexico (released in Mexico as Alma mexicana), written and produced by the US feminist activist Juliet Barrett Rublee (b. 1875–d. 1966), provides a window on to ... More

Korean Popular Culture in Argentina  

Grit Kirstin Koeltzsch

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Labor and the Environment in Latin America  

Aviva Chomsky

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Latin American labor has a well-established historiography, in dialogue with trends outside of the region. Environmental history is a newer and more exploratory field. In basic terms, ... More

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita  

Natasha S. Varner

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The India Bonita Pageant of 1921 marked a critical moment in Mexico’s revolutionary identity formation. This serialized pageant hosted by the Mexico City newspaper, El Universal, also ... More

Latin American Marxism and the Atlantic  

Andrés Estefane and Luis Thielemann

Marxist thought in Latin America was impacted by various transatlantic intellectual, and social influences. The changes in Latin American Marxism can be placed in a five-stage ... More

Latin America and Antarctica  

Adrian Howkins

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Since the early 19th century, a number of Latin American countries have had active interests in the Antarctic continent. These interests began to accelerate in the early 20th century, and ... More

Latin America and the League of Nations  

Fabián Herrera León

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
At the moment of its founding in 1920, the League of Nations enjoyed the solid support of Latin American countries, whose early and extensive participation helped legitimize the new ... More

Latin America in World War I  

Friedrich E. Schuler

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The English-speaking world awaits its first detailed study examining Latin America during World War I. Many historical events of the era remain little-known, as does much of the region’s ... More

Latin American Environmental History  

Christopher R. Boyer

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Human interaction with nature has shaped Latin American ecology and society ever since the first people arrived in the Americas more than fifteen millennia ago. Ancient Native Americans ... More

Laura Méndez de Cuenca: A Force for Mexican Modernity  

Mílada Bazant

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
One of the leading figures who pioneered and promoted changes toward modernity in Mexico City was Laura Méndez de Cuenca. Laura dared to transgress the traditional Catholic norms of her ... More

Lázaro Cárdenas and Cardenismo  

Stephanie Mitchell

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Lázaro Cárdenas served as Mexico’s president from 1934–1940. His presidency marked the end of the “Maximato,” the period in which the former president Plutarco Elías Calles exercised ... More

Legal Writing, Civil Litigation, and Agents in the 18th-Century Spanish Imperial World  

Bianca Premo

This purpose of this essay is to reveal the diversity of writers responsible for creating the texts of lawsuits in the Spanish empire. It peeks behind the curtain of pages in civil ... More

Liberalism in the Spanish Atlantic  

Roberto Breña

The role that liberals and liberalism played from the beginning of the crisis hispánica of 1808 until the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830 can be separated for analytical purposes in two ... More

The Life, Myth, and Commemoration of Benito Juárez  

Thomas Benjamin

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Benito Pablo Juárez Garcia (b. San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, March 21, 1806; d. Mexico City, July 18, 1872) was one of the greatest (and most controversial) statesmen in Mexican history. ... More

Livestock, Livelihood, and Agrarian Change in Andean Peru  

Javier Puente

Agrarian transformations in Andean Peru, subject to larger sociopolitical and economic processes, entailed major material, environmental, and biological changes. The long history of sheep ... More

Lombardo Toledano’s Struggles in the World of Labor  

Daniela Spenser

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Vicente Lombardo Toledano was born into a prosperous family in 1894 in Teziutlán, Puebla, and died in Mexico City in 1968. His life is a window into the history of the 20th century: the ... More

López Obrador in Democratic Mexico  

Alejandro García Magos

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (b. 1953) is the current president of Mexico (for the period 2018–2024). He has been at the forefront of Mexican politics since 2000, having served as mayor of ... More

Lucas Alamán and 19th-Century Monarchism in Mexico  

Miguel Soto

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
When Mexico became independent in 1821, the first choice for a political system for the new country was a monarchy. In fact, the Plan of Iguala, which prompted the separation from Spain, ... More

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