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Mexico and the Pacific  

Edward R. Slack

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Called “Mar del Sur” [South Sea] when first spotted by Balboa in 1513 and dubbed “Mar Pacifíco” [Peaceful Calm Sea] by Ferdinand Magellan in 1520, the historical relationship between the ... More

The Mexico City Metro and Its Riders  

Amanda M. López

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Mexico City’s subway, commonly known as “el Metro,” opened its first line of service on September 4, 1969. Since then, the mass transit system, operated by the Sistema de Transporte ... More

Mexico in Spain’s Oceanic Empire, 1519–1821  

Christoph Rosenmüller

On August 13, 1521, the Spanish conquistadors and their native allies seized Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. The Spaniards succeeded because they had forged alliances with ... More

Mexico in World Expositions and Fairs  

Susan Douglas

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Mexico’s involvement in world’s fairs and other international expositions is examined. From 1867 to 1929, governments promoted nationalism and industrialization through world’s fairs in ... More

Mexico’s First Decades of Independence  

Christon I. Archer and Stephen B. Neufeld

By 1821, a decade of bloody warfare had fragmented the viceroyalty of New Spain, divided the population into hostile factions of patriots and royalists, and intensified old hatreds among ... More

Mexico’s Political Laboratory: The Revolutionary and Postrevolutionary Southeast  

Sarah Osten

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
The history of the 20th century in the Southeast of Mexico is bookended by two revolutions: the Mexican Revolution as it played out in the region, along with its antecedents and aftermath, ... More

The Mexico that Spain Encountered  

Susan Schroeder

The Spaniards had little idea of what to expect when they set foot in North America. Mexico, as the region is known today, was in the 16th century a vast territory with a grand history. ... More

The Middle Class in Argentina  

Ezequiel Adamovsky

Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Since the mid-19th century, Argentine society has undergone significant demographic shifts. The expansion of capitalism and the growing complexity of the state apparatus increased the ... More

The 1964 Military Coup in Brazil  

João Roberto Martins Filho

The coup that took place in Brazil on March 31, 1964 can be understood as a typical Cold War event. Supported by civilians, the action was carried out by the armed forces. Its origins hark ... More

Ministry of Communications and Public Works (Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Obras Públicas)  

Sonia Robles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The Ministry of Communications and Public Works, the Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Obras Públicas, or SCOP, was a powerful institution that accompanied Mexico along important historic ... More

The Motherland and the Welfare State in Mexico: Government Symbols, Programs, and Visions, 1943–1970  

Alicia Azuela de la Cueva

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The image of the Mexican Motherland protected by the national eagle was one of the most circulated civic symbols during the period of the welfare state (1940–1973). Between 1962 and 1977, ... More

Mountain and Forest Communities and Their Changing Landscapes in 19th-Century Mexico  

Alejandro Tortolero Villaseñor

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
For several years, some of Mexico’s most influential literary figures associated mountains with the presence of certain characteristics: wildlife, botanic variety, and most importantly, ... More

The Murder of the Mirabal Sisters in the Dominican Republic  

Eric Paul Roorda

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
At the highest point on the winding highway over the Dominican Republic’s northern mountains, there is a place that is called what it is: La Cumbre, The Summit. In the daytime, in the ... More

Music and Eastern Cuban Identity  

Rebecca Bodenheimer

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
On the one hand, Cubans from Havana tend to paint themselves as the quintessential representation of Cubanidad (Cubanness) and often enjoy all the visibility, especially from a global ... More

Music and Folklore Research in the Departamento de Bellas Artes, 1926–1946  

Jessica Gottfried

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The Departamento de Bellas Artes (DBA; Department of Fine Arts) was founded as one of the departments of the Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP). It had a Music Section, which centered ... More

Music in Mexico City, 1880–1960  

Ricardo Pérez Montfort

Online publication date:
May 2016
From the late 19th century to the mid-20th century, Mexican popular music underwent a significant transformation, thanks to the growth of Mexico City as an urban center and to the ... More

National Parks in Colombia  

Claudia Leal

The history of Colombian national parks started in 1948 with the establishment of a reserve for scientific research, which stood alone until the 1960s, when various state agencies created ... More

Nature Conservation and Protection in Mexico  

Emily Wakild

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Conservation, in broad terms, has been a dynamic and nuanced practice throughout Mexican history. Nature conservation and protection include individual practices such as planting trees to ... More

Neoliberalism and Free Trade in Latin America  

Robert Jordan

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
First utilized in Latin America in response to the mid-20th-century decline of populist economic policymaking in the region, modern neoclassical theory, or neoliberalism, can be generally ... More

Nineteenth-Century Foreign Travelers to Central America  

Arturo Taracena Arriola

Foreign travelers, mainly from Europe and the United States, did not come to Central America until the founding of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823 after independence from ... More

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