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The Mexico that Spain Encountered  

Susan Schroeder

The Spaniards had little idea of what to expect when they set foot in North America. Mexico, as the region is known today, was in the 16th century a vast territory with a grand history. ... More

The Middle Class in Argentina  

Ezequiel Adamovsky

Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Since the mid-19th century, Argentine society has undergone significant demographic shifts. The expansion of capitalism and the growing complexity of the state apparatus increased the ... More

The 1964 Military Coup in Brazil  

João Roberto Martins Filho

The coup that took place in Brazil on March 31, 1964 can be understood as a typical Cold War event. Supported by civilians, the action was carried out by the armed forces. Its origins hark ... More

Ministry of Communications and Public Works (Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Obras Públicas)  

Sonia Robles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The Ministry of Communications and Public Works, the Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Obras Públicas, or SCOP, was a powerful institution that accompanied Mexico along important historic ... More

The Motherland and the Welfare State in Mexico: Government Symbols, Programs, and Visions, 1943–1970  

Alicia Azuela de la Cueva

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The image of the Mexican Motherland protected by the national eagle was one of the most circulated civic symbols during the period of the welfare state (1940–1973). Between 1962 and 1977, ... More

Mountain and Forest Communities and Their Changing Landscapes in 19th-Century Mexico  

Alejandro Tortolero Villaseñor

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
For several years, some of Mexico’s most influential literary figures associated mountains with the presence of certain characteristics: wildlife, botanic variety, and most importantly, ... More

Music and Eastern Cuban Identity  

Rebecca Bodenheimer

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
On the one hand, Cubans from Havana tend to paint themselves as the quintessential representation of Cubanidad (Cubanness) and often enjoy all the visibility, especially from a global ... More

Music and Folklore Research in the Departamento de Bellas Artes, 1926–1946  

Jessica Gottfried

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The Departamento de Bellas Artes (DBA; Department of Fine Arts) was founded as one of the departments of the Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP). It had a Music Section, which centered ... More

Music in Mexico City, 1880–1960  

Ricardo Pérez Montfort

Online publication date:
May 2016
From the late 19th century to the mid-20th century, Mexican popular music underwent a significant transformation, thanks to the growth of Mexico City as an urban center and to the ... More

National Parks in Colombia  

Claudia Leal

The history of Colombian national parks started in 1948 with the establishment of a reserve for scientific research, which stood alone until the 1960s, when various state agencies created ... More

Nature Conservation and Protection in Mexico  

Emily Wakild

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Conservation, in broad terms, has been a dynamic and nuanced practice throughout Mexican history. Nature conservation and protection include individual practices such as planting trees to ... More

Neoliberalism and Free Trade in Latin America  

Robert Jordan

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
First utilized in Latin America in response to the mid-20th-century decline of populist economic policymaking in the region, modern neoclassical theory, or neoliberalism, can be generally ... More

Nineteenth-Century Foreign Travelers to Central America  

Arturo Taracena Arriola

Foreign travelers, mainly from Europe and the United States, did not come to Central America until the founding of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823 after independence from ... More

Oil and Environment in Mexico  

Myrna Santiago

Before there was Mexico, there was oil. Millennia of organic matter that collapsed and liquefied into fossil fuel rested deep underground and underwater along the half-moon territorial ... More

Oil in the Andes  

Stephen Cote

All of the Andean nations possess oil. Each has a unique historical relationship with petroleum, but there are also similarities between the histories of oil production in Bolivia, ... More

Oliveira Lima and the Oliveira Lima Library at the Catholic University of America  

Nathalia Henrich

Manoel de Oliveira Lima (b. Recife, December 25, 1867–d. Washington DC, March 24, 1928) was one of the most prestigious men of letters of his generation. As a historian, diplomat, literary ... More

Operation Pedro Pan: The Migration of Unaccompanied Cuban Children to the United States, 1960–1962  

Anita Casavantes Bradford

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Between the autumn of 1960 and October of 1962, the parents of more than fourteen thousand Cuban children made the difficult decision to send their children alone to the United States, ... More

Ordinary Opinions of Everyday Mexicans: Polling from the 1940s–2012  

Roderic Ai Camp

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
The evolution of the importance of public opinion in Mexico is intertwined with the emphasis of scholars, both foreign and Mexican, introducing survey research techniques. These efforts ... More

Oscar Arias and the Treaty of Esquipulas  

Phillip Travis

Throughout the 1980s, Central America was wracked by conflict. El Salvador faced a guerrilla insurgency, Guatemala’s long conflict festered, and Nicaragua faced a continually escalating ... More

Oscar Lewis, Urban Poverty, and The Children of Sánchez  

Joshua K. Salyers

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Revolutionary leaders favored depictions of Mexico City in the mid-20th century that highlighted the progress and orderly growth of a modern industrial city. The ruling party made Mexico ... More

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