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Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Brazilian Workers’ Party (PT)  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (b. Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil, October 27, 1945) was born in severe poverty in the Brazilian northeast. “Lula” was a nickname which he legalized as an adult so ... More

Machu Picchu  

Willie Hiatt

Machu Picchu is an Inca royal estate constructed in the mid-15th century in Peru’s picturesque high jungle. As a seasonal retreat for celebrations, religious rituals, and administrative ... More

Manuel Gómez Morin and the Creation of the National Action Party (PAN)  

Javier Garciadiego

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Manuel Gómez Morin was a multifaceted Mexican whose life spanned the first three quarters of the 20th century, from 1897 to 1972. He was affected personally, domestically, and ... More

Maps, Power, and the Pacification of La Araucanía-Chile, 1850–1900  

Pablo Azócar Fernández and Zenobio Saldivia Maldonado

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
In the history of cartography and in critical cartography, there is a link between the role of maps and power relations, especially during the conquest and domination of territories by ... More

Marxist Thought in Brazil  

Bernardo Ricupero

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The history of Marxism in Brazil has been marked by discord. This tension makes sense considering that historical materialism developed in a European social environment, contrasted, to ... More

Masculinities, Consumption, and Domesticity during the Perón Era  

Natalia Milanesio

Supported by a multiclass alliance including the working class and some sectors of industry and the military, Juan Domingo Perón’s government (1946–1955) industrialized the country, ... More

Maternal Death in Mexico  

Paola Sesia

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Today, the death of women during pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum is considered simultaneously a public health, social inequality, and gender discrimination problem. In Mexico, ... More

Maternal Health in the Andes  

Nicole L. Pacino

During the pre-Columbian and colonial periods, Andean cosmological understandings shaped indigenous approaches to maternal health. Women typically gave birth at home with the assistance of ... More

Men and Modernity in Porfirian Mexico  

Robert M. Buffington

The Porfirian era (1876–1911) marked a watershed in social understandings of manhood. New ideas about what it meant to be a man had appeared in Mexico by the middle of the 19th century in ... More

Mercury and Silver Mining in the Colonial Atlantic  

Kendall Brown

From the time that Columbus arrived in the Caribbean until Spain surrendered power over its mainland American colonies in the early 19th century, Spanish and Portuguese colonial mines ... More

The Mexican-American War  

Irving W. Levinson

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Mexican-American War ranks among the most consequential events in the history of both nations. Although the casus belli for the United States’s May 12, 1846, declaration of war was the ... More

Mexican Comic Books and NAFTA  

Bruce Campbell

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Mexican comic books are a cultural product whose development is tied to the history of the modern Mexican state. The consolidation of the state in the aftermath of the armed conflict ... More

Mexican Culture, 1920–1945  

Helen Delpar and Stephanie J. Smith

Online publication date:
May 2018
Cultural nationalism characterized much of Mexico’s artistic and literary production during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. Much as Mexico City’s centenary festivities in 1921 and the ... More

Mexican Foreign Relations, 1910–1946  

Amelia M. Kiddle

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
During the Mexican Revolution and the long period of reconstruction that followed, successive Mexican presidents navigated the stormy seas of international relations. Though forced to ... More

The Mexican Muralists and Frida Kahlo  

Leonard Folgarait

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The major art form produced in Mexico during the years following the Mexican Revolution of 1910, especially during 1920–1940, was mural painting, mostly in the technique of fresco. Three ... More

Mexican Politics, Economy, and Society, 1946–1982  

Ryan Alexander

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The years immediately following World War II constituted a watershed in Mexico’s political development: the national government, controlled by the recently renamed Institutional ... More

The Mexican Revolution, 1910–1946  

Jürgen Buchenau

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Mexican Revolution was the first major social revolution of the 20th century. Its causes included, among others, the authoritarian rule of dictator Porfirio Díaz, the seizure of ... More

The Mexican Son, Past and Present  

Raquel G. Paraíso

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Among the many musical traditions of Mexico, the son is one of the most representative of the richness and diversity of Mexican culture. Son (or sones) is a generic term that describes ... More

Mexican Telenovelas  

O. Hugo Benavides

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Telenovelas have a very recent history, yet from their impact and pervasiveness it would seem that they have always been part of the Mexican culture. Telenovelas did not make their ... More

Mexican Women Writers, 1960 to the Present  

Sarah Anderson

Online publication date:
May 2018
Since the early 1960s, Mexican women writers have relentlessly fought to become recognized within a traditionally male-dominated literary canon. In the 20th century, women’s ... More

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