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Rediscovering the Aztecs and Mayas: Field Exploration, Archaeological Exhibits, and National Museums  

Kevin M. Gosner

In the last decades of the 18th century, with the visit in 1784 of José Antonio Calderón to the Maya ruins at Palenque and the discovery in 1790 of the statue of Coatlicue and the Stone of ... More

REFLORA: A Virtual Way to Share Information about Brazilian Plants  

Daniela Zappi, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza, and E. Nic Lughadha

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Reforma Period in Mexico  

Paul Vanderwood and Robert Weis

Online publication date:
May 2018
By revealing the weaknesses of its political system and the fragmentation of its social fabric, Mexico’s devastating loss to the United States in 1848 forced a reexamination of the ... More

Relations between the Andes and the Upper Amazon  

Stefano Varese

Peoples and biotas of the Andes and Amazonia have been interacting for millennia, influencing each other through complex dynamics of biological, social, and cultural adaptations. The ... More

Religion and Politics in 20th-Century Central America  

Virginia Garrard-Burnett

The role of religion shifted dramatically in Central American politics during the 20th century, as the Catholic Church moved from a position as conservator of the status quo to a powerful ... More

Revolutionary Influences on Genre Cinema in Mexico  

Jennifer L. Jenkins

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The visual and technical culture of the Mexican Revolution shaped and was shaped by cinematic innovation in newsreel and fiction filmmaking, which evolved simultaneously with those social ... More

Revolutionary Land Reform and Its End in Mexico  

Joseph U. Lenti

For seventy-five years the Mexican government allocated private and public land to people who needed it—and lots of it. An average of 1.3 million hectares were redistributed annually from ... More

Ricardo Flores Magón and the Ongoing Revolution  

Kevan Antonio Aguilar

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The political and cultural legacy of Ricardo Flores Magón (b. San Antonio Eloxochitlán, September 16, 1873; d. U.S. Penitentiary, Leavenworth, Kansas, November 21, 1922,) has become an ... More

Rock Nacional in Argentina during the Dictatorship  

Timothy Wilson and Mara Favoretto

In the 20th century Argentina experienced a series of dictatorial regimes of varying intensity, but the last dictatorship stands apart. The Process of National Reorganization or Proceso ... More

Runaway Slave Colonies in the Atlantic World  

Tim Lockley

Communities of runaway slaves, more commonly known as “Maroon communities,” were created throughout the Americas. Enslaved people ran away from their owners all the time, often just for a ... More

Rural Indians and Technological Innovation, From the Chinampas of Xochimilco and Beyond  

Richard Conway

When the anthropologist Paul Kirchhoff proposed a new definition of Mesoamerica in a landmark study from 1943, the first common characteristics he identified were technological and ... More

Sacrilege, Profanation, and the Appropriation of Sacred Power in New Spain  

Luis R. Corteguera

Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Inquisition in New Spain tried individuals for a broad range of sacrilegious acts against religious objects, including spitting, trampling, ... More

Salvador Allende  

Steven S. Volk

Online publication date:
Nov 2015
Salvador Allende Gossens (1908–1973), democratically elected President of Chile in 1970, pledged to move Chile to socialism within a constitutional framework. A medical doctor by training, ... More

Santa Anna and His Legacy  

Will Fowler

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Antonio López de Santa Anna (b. Xalapa, February 21, 1794; d. Mexico City, June 21, 1876) was one of the most notorious military caudillos of 19th-century Mexico. He was involved in just ... More

Scandinavia in the Atlantic World  

Klas Rönnbäck

The Scandinavian countries established overseas settlements in Africa and the Americas, starting in the 17th century. In Africa, trading stations were initially established with the ... More

The Secretary of War’s Historical Commission: Military Historians and the Cristeros  

Julia Preciado

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The Cristero Rebellion (1926–1929), also known as La Cristiada, was a conflict between the Catholic Church and the Mexican government. The Catholics, especially from western states, rose ... More

Severo Martínez Peláez and Latin American Historiography  

Coralia Gutiérrez Álvarez

Online publication date:
May 2019
Severo Martínez Peláez is the most important figure in the founding of contemporary Guatemalan historiography. His work, in particular La patria del criollo (The Homeland of the Criollo), ... More

Sexuality and Black Magic in Brazil  

Kelly E. Hayes

Belief in the power of feitiçaria or black magic has both endured and continually changed over time in Brazil. However, black magic is a peculiar and protean thing. Rather than defining a ... More

Sheep Sovereignties: The Colonization of the Falkland Islands/Malvinas, Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego, 1830s–1910s  

Alberto Harambour-Ross

From the moment the expedition of Magellan gave Patagonia its name, it became a land where European fantasies and fears dwelled. A no man’s land inhabited by giant anthropophagites located ... More

Slavery and the Pursuit of Freedom in 16th-Century Santo Domingo  

Richard Lee Turits

In the past, scholars of Latin America often assumed that Spanish colonists abandoned the Caribbean for the bullion riches of Mexico and Peru almost immediately after their conquest, while ... More

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