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Oscar Arias and the Treaty of Esquipulas  

Philip Travis

Throughout the 1980s, Central America was wracked by conflict. El Salvador faced a guerrilla insurgency, Guatemala’s long conflict festered, and Nicaragua faced a continually escalating ... More

Political Economy, Race, and National Identity in Central America, 1500–2000  

Dario A. Euraque

The relationship between historically specific ideas of race and national identity in Central America between the onset of Spanish colonialism in the region, in about 1500, and the end of ... More

The Politics and Culture of Medicine and Disease in Central America  

David Carey Jr.

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
With its diverse ecological zones and varied public health threats that ranged from lowland epidemic to highland endemic diseases, Central America is a challenging place to practice ... More

Pulque: A Pre-Columbian Alcoholic Beverage of Mexico  

David Yetman

Pulque, the alcoholic beverage of pre-Columbian highland Mesoamerica is the fermented derivative of aguamiel, the juice or sap of the agave known as agave pulquero—principally Agave ... More

Religion and Politics in 20th-Century Central America  

Virginia Garrard-Burnett

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The role of religion shifted dramatically in Central American politics during the 20th century, as the Catholic Church moved from a position as conservator of the status quo to a powerful ... More

Saint Óscar Romero, Liberation Theology, and Human Rights in El Salvador  

Michael Cangemi

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Saint Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (b. Ciudad Barrios, San Miguel, El Salvador, August 15, 1915; d. San Salvador, El Salvador, March 24, 1980) was the seventh Archbishop of San Salvador. ... More

Severo Martínez Peláez and Latin American Historiography  

Coralia Gutiérrez Álvarez

Online publication date:
May 2019
Severo Martínez Peláez is the most important figure in the founding of contemporary Guatemalan historiography. His work, in particular La patria del criollo (The Homeland of the Criollo), ... More

Taxation, Money, Credit, and the Consolidation of Oligarchic Rule in El Salvador, 1848–1931  

Antonio Acosta

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Central America, 1889–1910, 1910–1945
The formation of El Salvador’s oligarchy was a long and complex process. Its beginning can be traced to 1848, when the first export of Salvadoran coffee took place. The first stage in its ... More

The Federal Republic of Central America, 1824–1840  

Luis Pedro Taracena Arriola

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The Federal Republic of Central America existed for a brief but critical period in Central American history. Tension in the region between its colonial legacy and liberal aspiration and ... More

US Foreign Policy toward Latin America in the 19th Century  

Brian Loveman

U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America in the 19th century initially focused on excluding or limiting the military and economic influence of European powers, territorial expansion, and ... More

US Interventions and Occupations in Latin America  

Alan McPherson

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
From 1800 to the present, US troops have intervened thousands of times in Latin America and have occupied its countries on dozens of occasions. Interventions were short-term and ... More

Wars of Spanish-American Independence  

Natalia Sobrevilla Perea

The wars of Spanish-American independence were a series of military campaigns that took place in the Americas between 1809 and 1825, which resulted in the creation of more than a dozen ... More

Zoos in Latin America  

Regina Horta Duarte

Modern zoos emerged as mass entertainment, spaces of public leisure and of culture. In the past, they served as monuments and expressions of the degree of “civilization” and progress of a ... More

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