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Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura  

Liliana Toledo Guzmán

The Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA; National Institute of Fine Arts) was created to replace and broaden the functions of the Departamento de Bellas Artes (DBA; Department of Fine ... More

Japanese Immigration to Brazil  

Mieko Nishida

Japanese immigration to Brazil started in 1908 as a replacement for European immigrants to work for the state of São Paulo’s expanding coffee industry. It peaked in the late 1920s and early ... More

Jean Charlot and the Mexican Mural Renaissance  

John Charlot

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
That the Mexican mural renaissance is understudied is clear from the fact than not one of its artists has been the subject of a scholarly biography. Moreover, the movement as a whole has ... More

Labor and Resistance to the International Monetary Fund  

Dustin Walcher

Since the immediate post–World War II era, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has played a leading role in the political, economic, and social lives of Latin Americans. Its role has ... More

Latin America and Antarctica  

Adrian Howkins

Since the early 19th century, a number of Latin American countries have had active interests in the Antarctic continent. These interests began to accelerate in the early 20th century, and ... More

Lombardo Toledano’s Struggles in the World of Labor  

Daniela Spenser

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Vicente Lombardo Toledano was born into a prosperous family in 1894 in Teziutlán, Puebla, and died in Mexico City in 1968. His life is a window into the history of the 20th century: the ... More

Luís Carlos Prestes: A Revolutionary Between Two Worlds  

Daniel Aarão Reis

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Luís Carlos Prestes, from his birth in 1898 to his death in 1990, had a long, restless, and bustling life. His childhood and youth, as well as key events in his family life, are especially ... More

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Brazilian Workers’ Party (PT)  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (b. Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil, October 27, 1945) was born in severe poverty in the Brazilian northeast. “Lula” was a nickname which he legalized as an adult so ... More

Masculinities, Consumption, and Domesticity during the Perón Era  

Natalia Milanesio

Supported by a multiclass alliance including the working class and some sectors of industry and the military, Juan Domingo Perón’s government (1946–1955) industrialized the country, ... More

Mexican Politics, Economy, and Society, 1946–1982  

Ryan Alexander

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The years immediately following World War II constituted a watershed in Mexico’s political development: the national government, controlled by the recently renamed Institutional ... More

Mexican Women Writers, 1960 to the Present  

Sarah Anderson

Online publication date:
May 2018
Since the early 1960s, Mexican women writers have relentlessly fought to become recognized within a traditionally male-dominated literary canon. In the 20th century, women’s ... More

Mexico and the New Neoliberalism  

Kathleen C. Schwartzman

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Neoliberalism swept over Mexico like a tsunami. It swept away the country’s edifice of economic nationalism and left in its place an economy based on principles of neoliberalism. These ... More

The Mexico City Metro and Its Riders  

Amanda M. López

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Mexico City’s subway, commonly known as “el Metro,” opened its first line of service on September 4, 1969. Since then, the mass transit system, operated by the Sistema de Transporte ... More

The 1964 Military Coup in Brazil  

João Roberto Martins Filho

The coup that took place in Brazil on March 31, 1964 can be understood as a typical Cold War event. Supported by civilians, the action was carried out by the armed forces. Its origins hark ... More

The Motherland and the Welfare State in Mexico: Government Symbols, Programs, and Visions, 1943–1970  

Alicia Azuela de la Cueva

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The image of the Mexican Motherland protected by the national eagle was one of the most circulated civic symbols during the period of the welfare state (1940–1973). Between 1962 and 1977, ... More

The Murder of the Mirabal Sisters in the Dominican Republic  

Eric Paul Roorda

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
At the highest point on the winding highway over the Dominican Republic’s northern mountains, there is a place that is called what it is: La Cumbre, The Summit. In the daytime, in the ... More

National History Museum, Chapultepec Castle  

Salvador Rueda Smithers

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
As a monument and museum, Chapultepec Castle is today an emblem for Mexicans. It signified a double synthesis of memory: the building tells the history of the old Military College and the ... More

National Parks in Colombia  

Claudia Leal

The history of Colombian national parks started in 1948 with the establishment of a reserve for scientific research, which stood alone until the 1960s, when various state agencies created a ... More

Operation Pedro Pan: The Migration of Unaccompanied Cuban Children to the United States, 1960–1962  

Anita Casavantes Bradford

Between the autumn of 1960 and October of 1962, the parents of more than fourteen thousand Cuban children made the difficult decision to send their children alone to the United States, ... More

Oscar Arias and the Treaty of Esquipulas  

Philip Travis

Throughout the 1980s, Central America was wracked by conflict. El Salvador faced a guerrilla insurgency, Guatemala’s long conflict festered, and Nicaragua faced a continually escalating ... More

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