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The Abolition of Brazilian Slavery, 1864–1888  

Ricardo Salles

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, Slavery and Abolition
Brazil was the last Western country to abolish slavery, which it did in 1888. As a colonial institution, slavery was present in all regions and in almost all free and freed strata of the ... More

Africans in Brazil and Afro-Brazilian Religion and Culture  

Luis Nicolau Parés

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Of the estimated 4.9 million African captives disembarked in Brazil, 70 % were shipped from Central Africa, 24 % from West Africa, and the remaining 6 % from the East Coast of the ... More

Agricultural Transformations in Sugarcane and Labor in Brazil  

Thomas D. Rogers

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Portuguese took sugarcane from their Atlantic island holdings to Brazil in the first decades of the 16th century, using their model of extensive agriculture and coerced labor to turn ... More

Alberto Santos-Dumont and Brazilian Aviation  

Felipe Fernandes Cruz

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Aviation has played a unique role in the history of Brazil, beginning with the life of Alberto Santos-Dumont. Most Brazilians consider him to be the true inventor of the airplane over the ... More

The Alphabetic Colonization of Amerindian Oral Ecologies in Early Brazil  

Diogo de Carvalho Cabral

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, 1492–1824, Environmental History
Although it has received less scholarly attention than firearms, microbes, domestic animals and plants, market economy, and statecraft, alphabetic reading and writing was crucial in the ... More

Artistic Vanguards in Brazil, 1917–1967  

Gênese Andrade

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, Cultural History
The 1922 Modern Art Week is considered the initial landmark of artistic vanguards in Brazil. However, before it was held, Anita Malfatti’s 1917 exhibition, which presented expressionism to ... More

Black Associational Politics in 20th-Century Brazil  

Petrônio Domingues

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The population of African descent in Brazil has always maintained vibrant associative communities, whether in the form of mutual aid societies, confraternities, and religious brotherhoods ... More

Brazil and the AIDS Crisis  

Richard Parker

Online publication date:
May 2020
The response to the AIDS crisis in Brazil has been the focus of significant attention around the world—both as a model of social mobilization that other countries might follow and as an ... More

Brazil and the Paraguayan War: Conflicts and Interests  

Francisco Doratioto

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
In 1863 and 1864, historical and political contradictions in the River Plate region led to civil war in Uruguay, creating tensions with neighboring nations in the region. The Brazilian ... More

Brazil and World War II  

Frank D. McCann

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, 1910–1945, 1945–1991
World War II produced great change in Brazil. Its war effort improved its port facilities, left it with new modern airfields from Belém to Rio de Janeiro, as well as refurbished railroads, ... More

Brazilian Cinema and Moviegoing  

Rielle Navitski

As the world’s fifth most populous nation and by far the largest Portuguese-speaking country, Brazil possesses a massive media market. Despite factors boosting demand for homegrown ... More

The Brazilian Economy During the Colonial Period  

José Jobson Arruda

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, 1492–1824
The development of the Brazilian economy during the colonial period resulted from foreign inducements exercised by Portuguese colonialists under the auspices of the Portuguese Crown. Over ... More

The Brazilian Economy in the 20th Century  

Herbert S. Klein and Francisco Vidal Luna

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil
The 20th century represents a crucial period in Brazil’s economic history, when an agrarian, rural-dominated society became an urban, industrialized country with a complex financial sector ... More

Brazilian Historiography in the 19th Century  

Thiago Lima Nicodemo, Pedro Afonso Cristovão dos Santos, and Mateus Henrique de Faria Pereira

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Brazilian historiography in the 19th century stands for a variety of practices and ways of doing history. In the beginning of the century, the writing of history assumed a specific color ... More

Brazilian Historiography in the 20th Century  

Thiago Lima Nicodemo, Mateus Henrique de Faria Pereira, and Pedro Afonso Cristovão dos Santos

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
The founding of the first universities in the first decades of the 20th century in Brazil emerged from a context of public education reforms and expansion that modified the relationship ... More

Brazilian Independence: Change and Continuity  

João Paulo Pimenta

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Stemming from an accelerated and tumultuous process unleashed by European wars in the first decade of the 19th century, Brazil and Portugal split politically in 1822. In a sense, Brazil’s ... More

The Brazilian Military Regime, 1964–1985  

Marcos Napolitano

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Since its establishment in 1889, the history of the Brazilian republic was marked by the centrality of the armed forces, particularly the army, in political life. But between 1964 and 1985, ... More

Brazilian Popular Music during the First Half of the 20th Century  

Carlos Sandroni

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, Cultural History
Commercial recordings in Brazil were first made in 1902 in Rio de Janeiro. During the first two decades of the 20th century, however, the recorded repertoire centered around the same ... More

Brazilian Telenovelas and Modernity  

Mônica Almeida Kornis

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The popularity of telenovelas in Brazil begins in the 1960s. On air for many decades, they still have an audience, despite competition from cable networks, the internet, and streaming ... More

Brazilian Universities and Politics in the 20th Century  

Rodrigo Patto Sá Motta

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil
Recently Brazil reached the mark of eight million university students, which represents around 4 percent of the population. Although this level is less than those in developed countries, it ... More

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