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Agrarian Revolt in the Sierra of Chihuahua  

Elizabeth A. Henson

Published Online:
Apr 2017
On September 23, 1965, several years of protest, including land invasions, strikes, sit-ins, and cross-country marches, culminated in an armed attack on an army base located in the remote ... More

Architecture in Mexico City, 1940–1980  

Kathryn E. O’Rourke

Architecture in Mexico City in the mid-20th century was shaped by rapid economic and urban growth, demographic change, new construction technologies, and politics. Architects adapted ... More

The Autonomous Department of Press and Publicity (Departamento Autónomo de Prensa y Publicidad)  

Ana Laura de la Torre

Published Online:
Mar 2018
The Autonomous Department of Press and Publicity (DAPP) created by Lazaro Cardenas’s administration responded to the need for a fixed ideological framework that would allow for the ... More

Aztec Apocalypse, 1519–1521  

Ross Hassig

Published Online:
Nov 2017
The Conquest of Mexico is typically explained in terms of European military superiority, and although this offered an advantage to the forces arrayed against the Aztecs, it was merely part ... More

Benito Juárez and Liberalism  

Guy Thomson

Benito Juárez was born on March 21, 1806, in San Pablo Guelatao, a Zapotec-speaking hamlet in Sierra de Ixtlán (renamed the Sierra de Juárez on July 30, 1857) in Mexico’s southeastern ... More

Black Brotherhoods and Sisterhoods: Participatory Christianity in New Spain’s Mining Towns  

Nicole von Germeten

Free and enslaved Africans played an important role in developing a unique form of participatory Christianity in New Spain’s mining towns, especially Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, and ... More

The Bracero Program, 1942–1964  

Juan R. García

The Bracero Program began in 1942 as a temporary wartime measure but was extended repeatedly until 1964. During that time, more than 4.5 million braceros received contracts to work in the ... More

Carlos Salinas de Gortari and His Legacy  

Stephen D. Morris

Published Online:
Jan 2018
Mexico’s President Carlos Salinas de Gortari of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) came to power amidst crisis and controversy in 1988. Using a variety of old and new strategies ... More

Caste Wars in Yucatán  

Michele McArdle Stephens

The Caste Wars of the Yucatán tore apart the peninsula between 1847 and 1901. While the violence was not constant throughout the more than five decades between the start and conclusion of ... More

Catholicism in Mexico, 1910 to the Present  

Matthew Butler

The history of Mexican Catholicism between 1910 and 2010 was one of successive conflict and compromise with the state, latterly coupled with increased concern about religious pluralism, ... More

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army  

Marco Estrada-Saavedra

The 1994 Zapatista uprising in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas was the culmination of centuries of repression and exploitation of the country’s indigenous minority at the hands of ... More

Chin Chun Chan: The Zarzuela as an Ethnic and Technological Farce  

Jacqueline Avila

Chin Chun Chan premiered at the Teatro Principal in Mexico City on April 9, 1904, to an enthusiastic audience. The first Mexican zarzuela written by José F. Elizondo and ... More

Civilian Aviation in Mexico  

Peter Soland

The Mexican government’s civil aviation program implemented elite development strategies during a period of national reconstruction. In the decades following the revolution, political ... More

The Colonial Economy of New Spain  

Jeremy Baskes

Published Online:
Feb 2018
For three centuries New Spain was one of the great jewels of Spain’s colonial empire, producing wealth for immigrants and the Crown. The brunt of the labor was performed by indigenous ... More

The Colonial Mosaic of Indigenous New Spain, 1519–1821  

Susan Kellogg

Published Online:
Jun 2016
From a geographically, environmentally, linguistically, and ethnically highly variable Mesoamerica, Spain created a core region within her American territories. But for New Spain’s ... More

The Conjunction of the Lettered City and the Lettered Countryside in 19th-Century Mexico  

William E. French

A persuasive literature has argued that the course of Latin American history from the arrival of Europeans to the present has been shaped to a large extent by a small but expanding group ... More

Convent and Family Property in New Spain  

Rosalva Loreto López

The process of establishing women’s convents in Hispanic America must be understood as the result of converging expectations from the crown, the church, and important laypeople who were ... More

Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas and the Democratization of Mexican Politics  

Kathleen Bruhn

Published Online:
Jun 2017
Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas never achieved his goal of becoming the first son of a Mexican president to win the presidency. But he contributed significantly to bringing about the transition from a ... More

Culture in Mexico during the Miracle and Beyond, 1946–1982  

Eric Zolov

Published Online:
May 2016
Mexican national culture in the period from 1946 to 1982 can be understood by recognizing three overlapping transformations. The first was the consolidation of various national archetypes ... More

The Culture of a Multi-Ethnic Colony  

Sonya Lipsett-Rivera

The very nature of Spanish colonization meant that New Spain brought together people from different cultures, ethnicities, religions, and attitudes. Mexico City was the meeting place of ... More

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