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The Abolition of Brazilian Slavery, 1864–1888  

Ricardo Salles

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Brazil was the last Western country to abolish slavery, which it did in 1888. As a colonial institution, slavery was present in all regions and in almost all free and freed strata of the ... More

Agricultural Transformations in Sugarcane and Labor in Brazil  

Thomas D. Rogers

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Portuguese took sugarcane from their Atlantic island holdings to Brazil in the first decades of the 16th century, using their model of extensive agriculture and coerced labor to turn ... More

The Alphabetic Colonization of Amerindian Oral Ecologies in Early Brazil  

Diogo de Carvalho Cabral

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Although it has received less scholarly attention than firearms, microbes, domestic animals and plants, market economy, and statecraft, alphabetic reading and writing was crucial in the ... More

Artistic Vanguards in Brazil, 1917–1967  

Gênese Andrade

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
The 1922 Modern Art Week is considered the initial landmark of artistic vanguards in Brazil. However, before it was held, Anita Malfatti’s 1917 exhibition, which presented expressionism to ... More

Black Associational Politics in 20th-Century Brazil  

Petrônio Domingues

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The population of African descent in Brazil has always maintained vibrant associative communities, whether in the form of mutual aid societies, confraternities, and religious brotherhoods ... More

Brazil and the Paraguayan War: Conflicts and Interests  

Francisco Doratioto

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
In 1863 and 1864, historical and political contradictions in the River Plate region led to civil war in Uruguay, creating tensions with neighboring nations in the region. The Brazilian ... More

The Brazilian Economy During the Colonial Period  

José Jobson Arruda

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The development of the Brazilian economy during the colonial period resulted from foreign inducements exercised by Portuguese colonialists under the auspices of the Portuguese Crown. Over ... More

The Brazilian Economy in the 20th Century  

Herbert S. Klein and Francisco Vidal Luna

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
The 20th century represents a crucial period in Brazil’s economic history, when an agrarian, rural-dominated society became an urban, industrialized country with a complex financial sector ... More

Brazilian Independence: Change and Continuity  

João Paulo Pimenta

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Stemming from an accelerated and tumultuous process unleashed by European wars in the first decade of the 19th century, Brazil and Portugal split politically in 1822. In a sense, Brazil’s ... More

The Brazilian Military Regime, 1964–1985  

Marcos Napolitano

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Since its establishment in 1889, the history of the Brazilian republic was marked by the centrality of the armed forces, particularly the army, in political life. But between 1964 and ... More

Brazilian Universities and Politics in the 20th Century  

Rodrigo Patto Sá Motta

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Recently Brazil reached the mark of eight million university students, which represents around 4 percent of the population. Although this level is less than those in developed countries, ... More

Brazilian Wildlife: History, Threats, and Opportunities  

José Luiz de Andrade Franco and José Augusto Drummond

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The rich variety of the tropical ecosystems and wildlife native to the current territory of Brazil has captured the attention of several groups of observers since the early 1800s. Wildlife ... More

Brazil—The Country of Football  

Bernardo Buarque de Hollanda

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Football appeared in Brazil in the end of the 19th century, among a favorable environment for the practice of English sports. These sports were initially practiced not professionally by ... More

Cangaço and Cangaceiros: Rural Banditry in the Brazilian Northeast  

Luiz Bernardo Pericás

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The cangaço was a social phenomenon related to rural banditry in the backlands of the Brazilian Northeast (an area referred to as the sertão). Beginning in the nineteenth century, the ... More

Capoeira: From Slave Combat Game to Global Martial Art  

Matthias Röhrig Assunção

Capoeira is a martial art that developed from combat games enslaved Africans brought to Brazil. It is systematically documented since the beginning of the 19th century in Rio de Janeiro ... More

Cartography in the Administration of Portuguese America from the 16th to 18th Centuries  

Júnia Ferreira Furtado

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Cartography in the administration of Portuguese America can be related to three major processes—first, to allow the exploration and occupation of territory from the coast to the interior; ... More

Child Labor in Brazil and Uruguay  

Marcia Guedes Vieira

The International Labour Organization estimates that there are 12.5 million children and adolescents under the age of fifteen currently working in Latin America and the Caribbean. Of ... More

The Collor Presidency from the Electoral Campaign to the Impeachment  

Brasilio Sallum Jr.

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In December 1989, Fernando Collor was elected President of Brazil, in the first election after the 1988 democratic Constitution. The election occurred under the threat of hyperinflation. ... More

Colonial Elites: Planters and Land Nobility in 17th- and 18th-Century Brazil  

João Fragoso and Thiago Krause

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Portuguese colonists carried their conceptions of social organization to the Americas. Their ideal was to “live like a gentleman,” that is, to own land and command laborers in order to ... More

Cultural Institutions of the Brazilian Empire  

Lilia Katri Moritz Schwarcz

This article provides a larger panorama of the cultural politics of the Brazilian Empire during the 19th century and following the long Second Reign of Pedro II. The central figure of the ... More

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