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Alcohol in the Atlantic  

David Carey Jr.

Dating from the earliest times in Latin America, alcohol has played a crucial social, economic, political, and cultural role. Often reserved for politico-religious leaders, alcohol was a ... More

Brazilian Cinema and Moviegoing  

Rielle Navitski

As the world’s fifth most populous nation and by far the largest Portuguese-speaking country, Brazil possesses a massive media market. Despite factors boosting demand for homegrown ... More

Chile: A Center of Global Astronomy, 1850–2019  

Bárbara K. Silva

By 2020, it is expected that approximately 70 % of the world’s surface astronomical observation will be located in Chile, considering both optical and infrared telescopes, belonging to ... More

Digital Resources: Basques in Latin America  

Oscar Álvarez-Gila

The historical presence of Basque immigrants and their descendants in several Latin American countries from the age of colonialism to the present has led to the creation of a web of Basque ... More

Digital Resources: The José Guadalupe Posada Collection at the Ibero-American Institute  

Ricarda Musser

The Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Preußischer Kulturbesitz (IAI; Ibero-American Institute at the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation) owns a collection of some 750 works of Mexican ... More

Digital Resources: Latin America in Gallica  

Nathalie Dessens

Gallica, the digital library of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, was launched in 1997. The library contains almost five million documents (manuscripts, books, journals, ... More

Gender and Sexuality in Brazil since Independence  

Sueann Caulfield and Cristiana Schettini

Over the past forty years, increasing attention to gender and sexuality in Brazilian historiography has given us a nuanced understanding of diverse ways in which women and men in Brazil’s ... More

General Victoriano Huerta and the Mexican Revolution  

Friedrich E. Schuler

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
General Victoriano Huerta (1850–1916) stands out as the bête noire of twentieth-century Mexico. He was a career army officer who had attained the rank of general. Other generals and the old ... More

History of Alternative Communication in Chile: Phases and Endeavors  

Chiara Sáez and Jorge Iturriaga

With the surge of social struggles tied to the implementation of capitalist modernization at the end of the 19th century, diverse forms of technology-based mass communication in Chile arose ... More

Immigration and National Identity in Latin America, 1870–1930  

Michael Goebel

Although on a lesser scale than the United States, southern South America became a major receiving region during the period of mass transatlantic migration in the late 19th and early 20th ... More

José Guadalupe Posada and Visual Culture in Porfirian Mexico  

Robert M. Buffington and Jesus Osciel Salazar

José Guadalupe Posada (b. Aguascalientes, February 2, 1852; d. Mexico City, January 20, 1913) was a prolific printmaker of exceptional technique, range, and originality. By the time of his ... More

The Mexican Son, Past and Present  

Raquel G. Paraíso

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Among the many musical traditions of Mexico, the son is one of the most representative of the richness and diversity of Mexican culture. Son (or sones) is a generic term that describes both ... More

Music in Mexico City, 1880–1960  

Ricardo Pérez Montfort

Online publication date:
May 2016
From the late 19th century to the mid-20th century, Mexican popular music underwent a significant transformation, thanks to the growth of Mexico City as an urban center and to the influence ... More

National History Museum, Chapultepec Castle  

Salvador Rueda Smithers

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
As a monument and museum, Chapultepec Castle is today an emblem for Mexicans. It signified a double synthesis of memory: the building tells the history of the old Military College and the ... More

Public Health in Mexico, 1870–1943  

Claudia Agostoni

The prevention of communicable diseases, the containment of epidemic disorders, and the design of programs and the implementation of public health policies went through important ... More

Railroads and the Mexican Imagination during the Porfiriato and Revolution  

Michael Matthews

Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, the Mexican populace demonstrated a fascination with the nation’s railroads. Newspapers, literature, poetry, music, and art focused their ... More

Ricardo Flores Magón and the Ongoing Revolution  

Kevan Antonio Aguilar

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The political and cultural legacy of Ricardo Flores Magón (b. San Antonio Eloxochitlán, September 16, 1873; d. U.S. Penitentiary, Leavenworth, Kansas, November 21, 1922,) has become an ... More

The Socio-Political History of Cacao Growing in the State of Bahia  

Mary Ann Mahony

For most of the 20th century, a narrow coastal strip of the Brazilian state of Bahia was the largest producer of Theobroma cacao in the Americas and the second largest in the world. Cacao ... More

Taxation, Money, Credit, and the Consolidation of Oligarchic Rule in El Salvador, 1848–1931  

Antonio Acosta

Online publication date:
May 2019
The formation of El Salvador’s oligarchy was a long and complex process. Its beginning can be traced to 1848, when the first export of Salvadoran coffee took place. The first stage in its ... More

Wars of Spanish-American Independence  

Natalia Sobrevilla Perea

The wars of Spanish-American independence were a series of military campaigns that took place in the Americas between 1809 and 1825, which resulted in the creation of more than a dozen ... More

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