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Agricultural Transformations in Sugarcane and Labor in Brazil  

Thomas D. Rogers

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Portuguese took sugarcane from their Atlantic island holdings to Brazil in the first decades of the 16th century, using their model of extensive agriculture and coerced labor to turn ... More

Banana Industry in Central America  

Kevin Coleman

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
From the earliest days of Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule up until the late 19th century, banana cultivation in the Americas was carried out mostly by smallholders. That changed around ... More

The Bracero Program, 1942–1964  

Juan R. García

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The Bracero Program began in 1942 as a temporary wartime measure but was extended repeatedly until 1964. During that time, more than 4.5 million braceros received contracts to work in the ... More

Child Labor in Brazil and Uruguay  

Marcia Guedes Vieira

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The International Labour Organization estimates that there are 12.5 million children and adolescents under the age of fifteen currently working in Latin America and the Caribbean. Of these, ... More

Coffee and the Formation of Modern Brazil, 1860–1914  

Rafael de Bivar Marquese

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The coffee economy was decisive for the construction of independent Brazil. By the middle of the 19th century, the country was responsible for about half of the coffee global supply; in ... More

Digital Resources: The Bracero History Archive  

Sharon Leon

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Between 1942 and 1964 millions of Mexicans came to the United States as guest workers, authorized by a set of bilateral agreements. Beginning in late 2005, a coalition of academic scholars ... More

Domestic Service and Labor Laws in Chile and Argentina, 1931–1956  

Inés Pérez and Elizabeth Hutchison

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The regulation of labor relations and social rights substantially changed workers’ lives over the course of the 20th century. Domestic service, however, was only poorly and belatedly ... More

Labor and Resistance to the International Monetary Fund  

Dustin Walcher

Online publication date:
May 2019
Since the immediate post–World War II era, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has played a leading role in the political, economic, and social lives of Latin Americans. Its role has ... More

Labor and the Environment in Latin America  

Aviva Chomsky

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environmental History, Social History, Labor History
Latin American labor has a well-established historiography, in dialogue with trends outside of the region. Environmental history is a newer and more exploratory field. In basic terms, ... More

The Labor Movement and Sugar Industry in Tucumán in the 1960s and 1970s  

Silvia Nassif

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The province of Tucumán, Argentina, has been used as a test case for the fallacious “theory of the two demons” because it is both where a guerrilla movement formed in 1974 and where the ... More

Lombardo Toledano’s Struggles in the World of Labor  

Daniela Spenser

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, 1910–1945, 1945–1991, Labor History
Vicente Lombardo Toledano was born into a prosperous family in 1894 in Teziutlán, Puebla, and died in Mexico City in 1968. His life is a window into the history of the 20th century: the ... More

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Brazilian Workers’ Party (PT)  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (b. Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil, October 27, 1945) was born in severe poverty in the Brazilian northeast. “Lula” was a nickname which he legalized as an adult so ... More

Marxist Thought in Brazil  

Bernardo Ricupero

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The history of Marxism in Brazil has been marked by discord. This tension makes sense considering that historical materialism developed in a European social environment, contrasted, to some ... More

Masculinities, Consumption, and Domesticity during the Perón Era  

Natalia Milanesio

Online publication date:
May 2019
Supported by a multiclass alliance including the working class and some sectors of industry and the military, Juan Domingo Perón’s government (1946–1955) industrialized the country, ... More

Mercury and Silver Mining in the Colonial Atlantic  

Kendall Brown

From the time that Columbus arrived in the Caribbean until Spain surrendered power over its mainland American colonies in the early 19th century, Spanish and Portuguese colonial mines ... More

The Middle Class in Argentina  

Ezequiel Adamovsky

Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Since the mid-19th century, Argentine society has undergone significant demographic shifts. The expansion of capitalism and the growing complexity of the state apparatus increased the ... More

Neoliberalism and Free Trade in Latin America  

Robert Jordan

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
First utilized in Latin America in response to the mid-20th-century decline of populist economic policymaking in the region, modern neoclassical theory, or neoliberalism, can be generally ... More

Oil and Environment in Mexico  

Myrna Santiago

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Before there was Mexico, there was oil. Millennia of organic matter that collapsed and liquefied into fossil fuel rested deep underground and underwater along the half-moon territorial ... More

Potosí Mines  

Kris Lane

Online publication date:
May 2015
This article examines the long history of Potosí, Bolivia, home of the world’s most productive silver mines. The mines, discovered in 1545 and still active today, are discussed in terms of ... More

Social Movements in Late 20th-Century Ecuador and Bolivia  

Marc Becker

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Both Ecuador and Bolivia have gained a reputation for powerful social movements that have repeatedly challenged entrenched political and economic interests that have controlled the ... More

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