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Alfred Métraux: Between Ethnography and Applied Knowledge  

Rodrigo Bulamah

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Alfred Métraux was part of a prolific moment in which French sociology and ethnology were enlarging their scientific scope and advancing toward new fields. Following the colonial expansion ... More

Anticommunism in 20th-Century Chile: From the “Social Question” to the Military Dictatorship  

Marcelo Casals

Anticommunism was a central force in the history of the Chilean political conflict in the 20th century. Not only did several political actors define their identities and actions by their ... More

Architecture in Mexico City, 1940–1980  

Kathryn E. O’Rourke

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Architecture in Mexico City in the mid-20th century was shaped by rapid economic and urban growth, demographic change, new construction technologies, and politics. Architects adapted ... More

Brazil and World War II  

Frank D. McCann

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Brazil, 1910–1945, 1945–1991
World War II produced great change in Brazil. Its war effort improved its port facilities, left it with new modern airfields from Belém to Rio de Janeiro, as well as refurbished railroads, ... More

Brazilian Cinema and Moviegoing  

Rielle Navitski

As the world’s fifth most populous nation and by far the largest Portuguese-speaking country, Brazil possesses a massive media market. Despite factors boosting demand for homegrown ... More

Brazilian Historiography in the 20th Century  

Thiago Lima Nicodemo, Mateus Henrique de Faria Pereira, and Pedro Afonso Cristovão dos Santos

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
The founding of the first universities in the first decades of the 20th century in Brazil emerged from a context of public education reforms and expansion that modified the relationship ... More

Carmen Miranda: Race, Gender, and Camp Culture  

Kathryn Bishop-Sanchez

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Carmen Miranda (b. 1909–d. 1955) was a Brazilian singer and actress who made her debut on the radio in the late 1920s and soon became one of the most popular voices in Brazil. She recorded ... More

César Moscoso Carrasco and Malaria Eradication in Bolivia  

Nicole L. Pacino

César Moscoso Carrasco (1904–1966), a central figure in Bolivia’s mid-20th-century public health system, wanted to liberate Bolivia from malaria. In a career that spanned three decades, he ... More

Chile: A Center of Global Astronomy, 1850–2019  

Bárbara K. Silva

By 2020, it is expected that approximately 70 % of the world’s surface astronomical observation will be located in Chile, considering both optical and infrared telescopes, belonging to ... More

Civilian Aviation in Mexico  

Peter Soland

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The Mexican government’s civil aviation program implemented elite development strategies during a period of national reconstruction. In the decades following the revolution, political ... More

Football and Sports Media in Chile, 1895–1962  

Pedro Acuña

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Football and media have become associated to such an extent that it would be difficult to discuss the history of sports in Chile without acknowledging its relationship with the media. Since ... More

Gender and Sexuality in Brazil since Independence  

Sueann Caulfield and Cristiana Schettini

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Over the past forty years, increasing attention to gender and sexuality in Brazilian historiography has given us a nuanced understanding of diverse ways in which women and men in Brazil’s ... More

Guerrilla Movements and Armed Struggle in Cold War Mexico  

Alexander Aviña

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
After decades of revolutionary upheaval and political violence that began early in the 20th century, Mexico had seemingly achieved stability and a relative level of social peace by the ... More

History of Alternative Communication in Chile: Phases and Endeavors  

Chiara Sáez and Jorge Iturriaga

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
With the surge of social struggles tied to the implementation of capitalist modernization at the end of the 19th century, diverse forms of technology-based mass communication in Chile arose ... More

History of Science and Technology in 20th-Century Brazil  

Olival Freire Junior

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Twentieth-century science and technology in Brazil were marked by the building of new institutions of higher education, research, and research funding as well as by the professionalization ... More

Huichol Culture in Mexico, 1910–2019  

Michele McArdle Stephens

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The Huichols are an indigenous group inhabiting the west Mexican states of Jalisco, Nayarit, Durango, and Zacatecas, who maintain a culture distinct from Mexican society at large. Since ... More

Japanese Immigration to Brazil  

Mieko Nishida

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Japanese immigration to Brazil started in 1908 as a replacement for European immigrants to work for the state of São Paulo’s expanding coffee industry. It peaked in the late 1920s and early ... More

Jean Charlot and the Mexican Mural Renaissance  

John Charlot

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
That the Mexican mural renaissance is understudied is clear from the fact than not one of its artists has been the subject of a scholarly biography. Moreover, the movement as a whole has ... More

Lombardo Toledano’s Struggles in the World of Labor  

Daniela Spenser

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, 1910–1945, 1945–1991, Labor History
Vicente Lombardo Toledano was born into a prosperous family in 1894 in Teziutlán, Puebla, and died in Mexico City in 1968. His life is a window into the history of the 20th century: the ... More

Luís Carlos Prestes: A Revolutionary Between Two Worlds  

Daniel Aarão Reis

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Luís Carlos Prestes, from his birth in 1898 to his death in 1990, had a long, restless, and bustling life. His childhood and youth, as well as key events in his family life, are especially ... More

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