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Brazilian Cinema and Moviegoing  

Rielle Navitski

As the world’s fifth most populous nation and by far the largest Portuguese-speaking country, Brazil possesses a massive media market. Despite factors boosting demand for homegrown ... More

Brazilian Historiography in the 20th Century  

Thiago Lima Nicodemo, Mateus Henrique de Faria Pereira, and Pedro Afonso Cristovão dos Santos

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
The founding of the first universities in the first decades of the 20th century in Brazil emerged from a context of public education reforms and expansion that modified the relationship ... More

Brazil—The Country of Football  

Bernardo Buarque de Hollanda

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Football appeared in Brazil in the end of the 19th century, among a favorable environment for the practice of English sports. These sports were initially practiced not professionally by ... More

Democratizing Mexican Politics, 1982–2012  

Roderic Ai Camp

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, 1945–1991, 1991 and After
Mexico’s democratic transition provides a revealing case study of a semi-authoritarian political model evolving incrementally into an electoral democracy over two decades. One of the ... More

Digital Resource: Conflict Textiles  

Elsie Doolan

The Conflict Textiles website is a digital resource that allows users to learn more about how individuals who have experienced or been impacted by political violence have used textiles to ... More

Documenting the Human Cost of Guatemala’s Civil War  

Trudy Mercadal

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The magnitude and brutality of the internal armed conflict of Guatemala led to its becoming infamous worldwide. Although the militarized state became a monster that brutalized many ... More

The Drug Wars in Colombia  

Lina Britto

From Hollywood movies to binge-worthy TV shows, stories of Colombian narcotraficantes waging war against state agents and civilians are profitable narrative devices of our times. But beyond ... More

Gender and Sexuality in Brazil since Independence  

Sueann Caulfield and Cristiana Schettini

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Over the past forty years, increasing attention to gender and sexuality in Brazilian historiography has given us a nuanced understanding of diverse ways in which women and men in Brazil’s ... More

Health Care Policy in Argentina  

Giuseppe M. Messina

In Argentina, the provision of health care is divided into three components: a highly decentralized universal public sector, funded from general taxation; a constellation of compulsory ... More

History of Science and Technology in 20th-Century Brazil  

Olival Freire Junior

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Twentieth-century science and technology in Brazil were marked by the building of new institutions of higher education, research, and research funding as well as by the professionalization ... More

Huichol Culture in Mexico, 1910–2019  

Michele McArdle Stephens

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The Huichols are an indigenous group inhabiting the west Mexican states of Jalisco, Nayarit, Durango, and Zacatecas, who maintain a culture distinct from Mexican society at large. Since ... More

Japanese Immigration to Brazil  

Mieko Nishida

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Japanese immigration to Brazil started in 1908 as a replacement for European immigrants to work for the state of São Paulo’s expanding coffee industry. It peaked in the late 1920s and early ... More

Labor and Resistance to the International Monetary Fund  

Dustin Walcher

Online publication date:
May 2019
Since the immediate post–World War II era, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has played a leading role in the political, economic, and social lives of Latin Americans. Its role has ... More

Latin America and Antarctica  

Adrian Howkins

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Since the early 19th century, a number of Latin American countries have had active interests in the Antarctic continent. These interests began to accelerate in the early 20th century, and ... More

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Brazilian Workers’ Party (PT)  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (b. Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil, October 27, 1945) was born in severe poverty in the Brazilian northeast. “Lula” was a nickname which he legalized as an adult so ... More

Mexican Women Writers, 1960 to the Present  

Sarah Anderson

Online publication date:
May 2018
Since the early 1960s, Mexican women writers have relentlessly fought to become recognized within a traditionally male-dominated literary canon. In the 20th century, women’s ... More

Mexico and the New Neoliberalism  

Kathleen C. Schwartzman

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History of Mexico, 1945–1991, 1991 and After
Neoliberalism swept over Mexico like a tsunami. It swept away the country’s edifice of economic nationalism and left in its place an economy based on principles of neoliberalism. These ... More

National Parks in Colombia  

Claudia Leal

The history of Colombian national parks started in 1948 with the establishment of a reserve for scientific research, which stood alone until the 1960s, when various state agencies created a ... More

Popular Music and the Growth of Brazilian Culture Industries since 1945  

K. E. Goldschmitt and Eduardo Vicente

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The period following the end of Getúlio Vargas’s second government (1951–1954) saw a massive expansion of the media industries, with popular music in particular becoming an important ... More

Populism across the Andes during the 20th and Early 21st Centuries  

Iñigo García-Bryce

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Populist politics found fertile ground in the Andean nations both during the classic phase (1930s–1960s) and during the most recent wave of populism with its two ideological variants, ... More

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