Figures 1 and 2: The first and last page of the rewritten petition the African-born, nonliterate slave Agustín Carabali submitted to the court receptor in Lima in 1790. Notice the two places at the top of the final page where his agente, José, signed the first-person petition for him, the second preceded by “Yo,” or “I.” Also note the minor correction in the text, probably introduced by the court receptor to improve the grammar and formality of the petition.

Reproduced by permission from Autos seguidos por Agustín Caraveli [sic], esclavo de Dna. María Perales, sobre sevicia, Archivo General de la Nación, Perú Real Audiencia, Civile., Leg. 289, C. 2568-B, 1790, f. 1; 2.